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Page last updated
Wed 01 Dec 2021

The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves)

FM(U)otW(aolcb) is the web version of the MUSSEL Project Database. Follow the links to browse the data or use the custom Google search field. Either way, you win!

The nominal species (available and otherwise) in this synonymy are listed by usage rather than strictly by publication date. The primary sorting order is by the most recent year (since 1969) that the species name was treated as valid, and then nominal species are sorted secondarily by publication year.

The taxonomic history of the valid species (since 1900) is listed at the bottom of the page.

Search the database pages:

Unionoida | Unionoidea | Unionidae | Unioninae | Unionini | Unio

species Unio caffer Krauss, 1848: nominal species
     186 specimens available.

Unio caffer Krauss, 1848
Krauss, 1848, Südafrik. Moll.: 18, pl. 1, fig. 14.
Type(s): TYPE SMF_XXX, Rivers of Natal.

Unio cafferKrauss (1848), Hanley (1856), Küster (1856), Sowerby (1866), ..., Sonamzi et al. (2019), Graf & Cummings (2021), Bieler (2021), Lopes-Lima et al. (2021)
Margaron (Unio) cafferLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Hyridella) cafferAdams & Adams (1857)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1900)
Nodularia (Cafferia) caffraKobelt (1910)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1914)
Cafferia caffraConnolly (1925), Connolly (1931), Haas (1936), Modell (1942), ..., Bogan (2010), Graf & Cummings (2011), Reis et al. (2013), Marshall et al. (2014)
Unio (Cafferia) cafferPilsbry & Bequaert (1927), Thiele (1934), Connolly (1939), Graf (2002)
Cafferia cafferGraf & Cummings (2006), Jadhav & Jamkhedkar (2009)

Unio zeyheri Menke, 1849
Menke, 1849, Z. Malak. 5: 28.

Unio zeyheriMenke (1849)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) zeyheriSimpson (1900)
Nodularia (Cafferia) zeyheriKobelt (1910)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1914)
Unio (Cafferia) cafferConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Daget (1998)

Unio cyamus Philippi, 1853
Philippi, 1853, Z. Malak. 8: 125.

Unio cyamusPhilippi (1853)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1914)
Unio (Cafferia) cafferConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Daget (1998)

Unio africanus Lea, 1856
Lea, 1856, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 8: 94.
Lea, 1857, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 3 [O. 6]: 300 [20], pl. 27, fig. 15.
Type(s): LECTOTYPE USNM_85233, C. Good Hope.

Unio africanusLea (1856), Reeve (1865), Pilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Unio cafferSowerby (1866), Smith (1891), Sturany (1899)
Margaron (Unio) africanusLea (1870)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) caffer var. africanaSimpson (1900)
Nodularia (Cafferia) caffra var. africanaKobelt (1910)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) caffer var. africanusSimpson (1914)
Unio (Cafferia) cafferConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Daget (1998)

Unio caffer Küster, 1856
‘Krauss’ Küster, 1856, Conchyl. Cab. 9(2): 143, pl. 42, fig. 3. [in part]
(reference to Unio caffer Küster, 1856)

Unio cafferKüster (1856), Smith (1891), Sturany (1899)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) caffer var. africanaSimpson (1900)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) caffer var. africanusSimpson (1914)

Unio caffer Küster, 1856
‘Krauss’ Küster, 1856, Conchyl. Cab. 9(2): 143, pl. 42, fig. 2. [in part]
(reference to Unio caffer Krauss, 1848)

Unio cafferKüster (1856), Smith (1891), Sturany (1899)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1900)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1914)

Unio niloticus Küster, 1856
‘Caillaud’ Küster, 1856, Conchyl. Cab. 9(2): 158, pl. 45, fig. 5.
(misidentified reference to Unio niloticus Cailliaud, 1827)

Unio niloticusKüster (1856), Westerlund (1890)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) caffer var. africanaSimpson (1900)
Nodularia (Cælatura) niloticaPallary (1909)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) caffer var. africanusSimpson (1914)

Unio verrauxi Küster, 1856
‘Charpentier mss.’ Küster, 1856, Conchyl. Cab. 9(2): 150, pl. 43, fig. 6.

Unio verrauxiKüster (1856)
Unio verreauxiSmith (1891), Sturany (1899)
Cafferia caffra verreauxiConnolly (1925)
Lampsilis (Cyrtonaias) umbrosaFrierson (1927)
Unio (Cafferia) caffer verreauxiConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Daget (1998)
Unio cafferHeard & Vail (1976)

Unio verreauianus Lea, 1856
Lea, 1856, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 8: 94.
Lea, 1857, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 3 [O. 6]: 301 [21], pl. 27, fig. 16.
(renamed Unio verreauxianus Lea, 1867)
Type(s): LECTOTYPE USNM_84418, C. Good Hope.

Unio verreauianusLea (1856), Pilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Unio verrauianusSowerby (1868)
Unio cafferSmith (1891), Sturany (1899), Bieler (2021)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1900)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1914)
Cafferia caffra verreauxiConnolly (1925)
Unio (Cafferia) cafferConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Daget (1998)

Unio diminutis Lea, 1859
Lea, 1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 11: 151.
(incorrect original spelling of Unio diminutus Lea, 1859)
Type(s): LECTOTYPE BMNH_1965165, East Africa.

Unio diminutisLea (1859)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) diminutaSimpson (1900)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) diminutusSimpson (1914)
Unio diminutusPilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Unio (Cafferia) caffer verreauxiConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraDaget (1998)
Unio cafferBieler (2021)

Unio diminutus Lea, 1859
Lea, 1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 11: 151 [as ‘diminutis’].
Lea, 1860, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 4 [O. 7]: 254, pl. 39, fig. 134.
(correct name for Unio diminutis Lea, 1859)
Type(s): BMNH_1965165, East Africa.

Unio diminutusLea (1859), Reeve (1865), Jickeli (1874), Pilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Margaron (Unio) diminutusLea (1870)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) diminutaSimpson (1900)
Nodularia (Cafferia) diminutaKobelt (1910)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) diminutusSimpson (1914)
Unio (Cafferia) caffer verreauxiConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraDaget (1998)
Unio cafferBieler (2021)

Unio gratiosus Küster, 1861
‘Parreiss in sched.’ Küster, 1861, Conchyl. Cab. 9(2): 239, pl. 80, fig. 3.
(homonym of Unio gratiosus Philippi, 1843)

Unio gratiosusKüster (1861)
Unio diminutusJickeli (1874), Pilsbry & Bequaert (1927)

Unio natalensis Lea, 1864
Lea, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 16: 113.
Lea, 1866, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6 [O. 11]: 59 [63], pl. 20, fig. 57.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE (MONOTYPY) ANSP_41686, Umpingave River, Natal, S. Afr.

Unio natalensisLea (1864), Lea (1866), Sowerby (1868), Pilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Margaron (Unio) natalensisLea (1870)
Unio cafferSmith (1891), Sturany (1899)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1900)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1914)
Unio (Cafferia) cafferConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Daget (1998), Graf & Cummings (2011)

Unio zelebori Dunker, 1866
Dunker, 1866, Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 16: 915.
(homonym of Unio zelebori Zelebor, 1851)

Unio zeleboriDunker (1866)
Diplodon (Hyridella s.s.) zeleboriSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Hyridella (Echyridella) menziesiMcMichael & Hiscock (1958), Haas (1969)
Cafferia caffraMarshall & Fenwick (2006), Marshall et al. (2014)

Unio (Hyridella) fissidens O. Boettger, 1866
O. Boettger, 1866, Ber. Senckenb. Naturf. Ges. 1885/86: 27, pl. 2, figs. 6-7.
Type(s): TYPE SMF_3442, Hygap östl. v. Keheum, S. Kalahari.

Unio (Hyridella) fissidensO. Boettger (1866)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) fissidensSimpson (1900)
Nodularia (Cafferia) fissidensKobelt (1910)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) fissidensSimpson (1914)
Unio (Cafferia) cafferConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Daget (1998)

Unio (Hyridella) hygapanus O. Boettger, 1866
O. Boettger, 1866, Ber. Senckenb. Naturf. Ges. 1885/86: 26, pl. 2, fig. 5.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE SMF_3441, Hygap östl. v. Keheum, S. Kalahari.

Unio (Hyridella) hygapanusO. Boettger (1866)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) hygapanusSimpson (1900)
Nodularia (Cafferia) hygapanusKobelt (1910)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) hygapanusSimpson (1914)
Unio (Cafferia) cafferConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Daget (1998), Marshall & Fenwick (2006)

Unio verreauxianus Lea, 1867
Lea, 1867, Obs., index I-XI: errata.
Lea, 1870, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 36.
(new name for Unio verreauianus Lea, 1856)

Unio verreauxianusLea (1867)
Margaron (Unio) verreauxianusLea (1870)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1900)
Nodularia (Cafferia) caffra var. verreauxianaKobelt (1910)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1914)
Unio verreauianusPilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Cafferia caffraDaget (1998)
Unio cafferBieler (2021)

Unio rectilinearis Sowerby, 1868
Sowerby, 1868, Conch. Icon. 16: pl. 65, sp. 332.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE BMNH_74-12-11-4, Riv. Columbia.

Unio rectilinearisSowerby (1868)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1900)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1914)
Unio (Cafferia) cafferConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Daget (1998)

Unio verrauianus Sowerby, 1868
‘Lea’ Sowerby, 1868, Conch. Icon. 16: pl. 69, sp. 352.
(error for Unio verreauianus Lea, 1856)

Unio verrauianusSowerby (1868)
Unio cafferSmith (1891)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1900)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1914)

Unio teyheri Lea, 1870
‘Menke’ Lea, 1870, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 64.
(error for Unio zeyheri Menke, 1849)

Unio teyheriLea (1870)

Unio gracilis Jickeli, 1874
‘Parreyss’ Jickeli, 1874, Nova Acta Dtsch. Akad. Naturf. 37(1): 280.
(intro'd as syn of Unio diminutus Lea, 1859)

Unio gracilisJickeli (1874)
Unio diminutusJickeli (1874), Pilsbry & Bequaert (1927)

Unio vaalensis Chaper, 1885
Chaper, 1885, Bull. Soc. Zool. France 10: 480, pl. 11, figs. 1-3.
Type(s): SYNTYPES MNHN_MP_0180, la Vaal, Afrique Australe.

Unio vaalensisChaper (1885)
Unio cafferSmith (1891), Sturany (1899)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) caffer var. vaalensisSimpson (1900)
Nodularia (Cafferia) caffra var. vaalensisKobelt (1910)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) caffer var. vaalensisSimpson (1914)
Unio natalensisPilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Unio (Cafferia) cafferConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Daget (1998), Marshall & Fenwick (2006), Graf & Cummings (2011)

Unio gratiosus Paetel, 1890
Paetel, 1890, Cat. Conch.-Samml. 3: 154.
(reference to Unio gratiosus Küster, 1861)

Unio gratiosusPaetel (1890)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) diminutaSimpson (1900)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) diminutusSimpson (1914)

Unio verreauxi Smith, 1891
‘Kuster’ of Authors.
Smith, 1891, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 8: 319.
Sturany, 1899, Denk. Ak. Wien 67: 627.
Connolly, 1925, Rec. Albany Mus. 3: [1].
Connolly, 1939, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 33: 608.
Heard & Vail, 1976, Zool. Africana 11(1): 45.
(error for Unio verrauxi Küster, 1856)

Unio verreauxiSmith (1891)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1900)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1914)
Unio (Cafferia) caffer verreauxiConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraDaget (1998)

Unio caffer var. pentheri Sturany, 1898
Sturany, 1898, Anz. Kais. Akad. Wiss. , Math.-Nat. Classe 35(16): 161.
Sturany, 1899, Denk. Ak. Wien 67: 627, pl. 3, figs. 64-65.
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Unio caffer Krauss, 1848)
Type(s): SYNTYPES NMW_XXX, Panda ma tinka (Zambezi drainage).

Unio caffer var. pentheriSturany (1898), Sturany (1899)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) caffer var. pentheriSimpson (1914)
Unio (Cafferia) caffer var. pentheriPilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Unio (Cafferia) cafferConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Daget (1998), Marshall & Fenwick (2006)
Cafferia cafferGraf & Cummings (2006)

Unio charon Preston, 1910
Preston, 1910, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 6: 60, pl. 4, fig. 6.
Type(s): FIGURED SYNTYPE MRAC_56592, Brit. C. Afr.: Silongwe.

Unio charonPreston (1910), Simpson (1914)
Unio (Cafferia) cafferConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Daget (1998), Graf & Cummings (2011)

Unio mashonae Preston, 1910
Preston, 1910, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 6: 61, pl. 4, fig. 10 [as ‘mashonæ’].
Type(s): HOLOTYPE (ORIG. DESIG.) BMNH_1910-1-15-6, Banks of a strait, or on the veldt about 16 miles from Enkeldoorn, Mashonaland.

Unio mashonaePreston (1910)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) mashonaeSimpson (1914)
Unio (Cafferia) cafferConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Daget (1998), Graf & Cummings (2011)
Cafferia cafferGraf & Cummings (2006)

Unio vicinus Preston, 1910
Preston, 1910, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 6: 60, pl. 4, fig. 7.
(homonym of Unio vicinus Lea, 1857; renamed Unio silongweensis Preston, 1912)
Type(s): FIGURED SYNTYPE MRAC_56589, Brit. C. Afr.: Silongwe.

Unio vicinusPreston (1910)
Unio silongweensisSimpson (1914), Pilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Unio (Cafferia) cafferConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Daget (1998), Marshall & Fenwick (2006)

Unio silongweensis Preston, 1912
Preston, 1912, Nautilus 26: 35.
(new name for Unio vicinus Preston, 1910)

Unio silongweensisPreston (1912), Simpson (1914), Pilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Unio (Cafferia) cafferConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Mandahl-Barth (1988), Daget (1998)

Unio (Cafferia) connollyi Pilsbry, 1923
Pilsbry, 1923, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 75: 276, text fig. 1; pl. 19, figs. 3-4.
Pilsbry & Bequaert, 1927, Bull. AMNH 53: 380.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE (ORIG. DESIG.) ANSP_125501A, Port Natal, Africa.

Unio (Cafferia) connollyiPilsbry (1923), Pilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Unio (Cafferia) caffer connollyiConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Daget (1998)
Unio cafferHeard & Vail (1976)

Cafferia caffra obesa Connolly, 1925
Connolly, 1925, Rec. Albany Mus. 3: 261, pl. 1, figs. 1-4.
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Unio caffer Krauss, 1848)
Type(s): POSSIBLE SYNTYPES MCZ_52457, Bushmans River, Alicedale, South Africa.

Cafferia caffra obesaConnolly (1925)
Unio (Cafferia) connollyiPilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Unio (Cafferia) caffer connollyiConnolly (1939)
Cafferia caffraHaas (1969), Daget (1998)

Taxonomic History (since 1900)

Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1900)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) zeyheriSimpson (1900)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) caffer var. africanaSimpson (1900)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) diminutaSimpson (1900)
Diplodon (Hyridella s.s.) zeleboriSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) fissidensSimpson (1900)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) hygapanusSimpson (1900)
Nodularia (sec. Cafferia) caffer var. vaalensisSimpson (1900)
Nodularia (Cælatura) niloticaPallary (1909)
Nodularia (Cafferia) caffraKobelt (1910)
Nodularia (Cafferia) zeyheriKobelt (1910)
Nodularia (Cafferia) caffra var. africanaKobelt (1910)
Nodularia (Cafferia) diminutaKobelt (1910)
Nodularia (Cafferia) fissidensKobelt (1910)
Nodularia (Cafferia) hygapanusKobelt (1910)
Nodularia (Cafferia) caffra var. verreauxianaKobelt (1910)
Nodularia (Cafferia) caffra var. vaalensisKobelt (1910)
Unio charonPreston (1910), Simpson (1914)
Unio mashonaePreston (1910)
Unio vicinusPreston (1910)
Unio silongweensisPreston (1912), Simpson (1914), Pilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) cafferSimpson (1914)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) caffer var. africanusSimpson (1914)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) diminutusSimpson (1914)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) fissidensSimpson (1914)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) hygapanusSimpson (1914)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) caffer var. vaalensisSimpson (1914)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) caffer var. pentheriSimpson (1914)
Unio (sec. Cafferia) mashonaeSimpson (1914)
Unio cafferOrtmann (1918), Heard & Vail (1976), Appleton (1979), Graf (2000), ..., Sonamzi et al. (2019), Graf & Cummings (2021), Lopes-Lima et al. (2021), Bieler (2021)
Unio (Cafferia) connollyiPilsbry (1923), Pilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Cafferia caffraConnolly (1925), Connolly (1931), Haas (1936), Modell (1942), ..., Bogan (2010), Graf & Cummings (2011), Reis et al. (2013), Marshall et al. (2014)
Cafferia caffra verreauxiConnolly (1925)
Cafferia caffra obesaConnolly (1925)
Unio (Cafferia) cafferPilsbry & Bequaert (1927), Thiele (1934), Connolly (1939), Graf (2002)
Unio africanusPilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Lampsilis (Cyrtonaias) umbrosaFrierson (1927)
Unio verreauianusPilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Unio diminutusPilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Unio natalensisPilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Unio (Cafferia) caffer var. pentheriPilsbry & Bequaert (1927)
Unio (Cafferia) caffer verreauxiConnolly (1939)
Unio (Cafferia) caffer connollyiConnolly (1939)
Hyridella (Echyridella) menziesiMcMichael & Hiscock (1958), Haas (1969)
Cafferia cafferGraf & Cummings (2006), Jadhav & Jamkhedkar (2009)

Page updated: 16:46:21 Wed 01 Dec 2021

 
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