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Page last updated
Wed 18 Jan 2023

The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves)

FM(U)otW(aolcb) is the web version of the MUSSEL Project Database. Follow the links to browse the data or use the custom Google search field. Either way, you win!

Cladomics pages are experimental — even more so than the rest of this site!

The purpose of the cladomics pages for each genus and family-group level taxon is to provide statistics and references indicating the extent to which published phylogenetic work supports the classification used here.

The Cladomics Summary provides an overview of the number of studies that have included terminal species representing this taxon as well as an indication of how frequently it has been recovered as monophyletic.

Following the summary, the available published clades representing the taxon are listed.

For more information, visit the Cladomics FARQ (frequently asked rhetorical questions) page. Abbreviations for the various statistics are explained on the FARQ!

Search the database pages:

Bivalvia | Unionoida | Unionoidea | Unionidae | Unioninae | Anodontini

subtribe ALASMIDONTINA Rafinesque, 1820: cladomics
     11 genera

Cladomics Summary

number of species = 49
number of subtaxa (rank: genus) = 11

analyzed in 175 cladograms in 105 publications
maximum number of terminal species in an analysis = 17, mean = 3.78
maximum number of subtaxa (genus) in an analysis = 8, mean = 2.59

Basic Monophyly

number of cladograms that test basic monophyly (i.e., more than 1 included species) = 140
maximum number of included species = 17, mean = 4.48
maximum number of subtaxa (genus) = 8, mean = 2.99
proportion of cladograms that support basic monophyly = 0.84

Rigorous Monophyly

number of cladograms that test rigorous monophyly = 96
(Rigorous monophyly refers to cladograms with terminal species representing more than one subtaxon (genus) taxon and at least one rigorous outgroup (subtribe).
maximum number of included species = 17, mean = 4.67
maximum number of subtaxa (genus) = 8, mean = 3.25
proportion of cladograms that support rigorous monophyly = 0.77


Smith et al., 2018, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
16 16 13 8 1 1 1 0.0

*** Top Monophyly Cladogram ***

  +-------------------- Cristaria_plicata               
  |                                                     
  |                 +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **        
  |  +--------------+                                   
--+  |              +-- Pyganodon_grandis **               
  |  |                                                  
  |  |              +-- Anodontoides_ferussacianus **      
  |  |     +--------+                                   
  |  |     |        +-- Anodontoides_denigratus **         
  +--+  +--+                                            
     |  |  |  +-------- Strophitus_undulatus **            
     |  |  +--+                                         
     |  |     |  +----- Strophitus_pascagoulaensis **      
     |  |     +--+                                      
     |  |        |  +-- Strophitus_radiatus **             
     +--+        +--+                                   
        |           +-- Strophitus_williamsi **            
        |                                               
        |           +-- Alasmidonta_triangulata **         
        |  +--------+                                   
        |  |        +-- Lasmigona_etowaensis **            
        |  |                                            
        +--+        +-- Pseudodontoideus_connasaugaensis **
           |  +-----+                                   
           |  |     +-- Pseudodontoideus_subvexus **       
           |  |                                         
           +--+     +-- Utterbackiana_couperiana **        
              |  +--+                                   
              |  |  +-- Utterbackiana_heardi **            
              +--+                                      
                 |  +-- Utterbackiana_hartfieldorum **     
                 +--+                                   
                    +-- Utterbackiana_suborbiculata **     

Lopes-Lima et al., 2020, fig. 2-4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 1 5 117 28 2 16.0

*** Top Sister-Group Cladogram ***

                    +-------- Pseudanodonta_complanata
                    |                                 
                    |  +----- Anodonta_cygnea         
                    +--+                              
                    |  |  +-- Anodonta_anatina        
  +-----------------+  +--+                           
  |                 |     +-- Anodonta_nuttalliana    
  |                 |                                 
  |                 |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
  |                 |  |                              
  |                 |  +----- Simpsonaias_ambigua **     
  |                 +--+                              
  |                    +----- Strophitus_undulatus **    
  |                    |                              
  |                    |  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata **   
  |                    +--+                           
  |                       +-- Lasmigona_compressa **     
--+                                                   
  |                       +-- Cristaria_plicata       
  |  +--------------------+                           
  |  |                    +-- Cristaria_clessini      
  |  |                                                
  |  |        +-------------- Anemina_arcaeformis     
  |  |        |                                       
  |  +--------+  +----------- Amuranodonta_kijaensis  
  |  |        |  |                                    
  |  |        +--+  +-------- Buldowskia_suifunica    
  |  |           |  |                                 
  |  |           +--+     +-- Buldowskia_flavotincta  
  +--+              |  +--+                           
     |              |  |  +-- Buldowskia_shadini      
     |              +--+                              
     |                 |  +-- Buldowskia_iwakawai     
     |                 +--+                           
     |                    +-- Buldowskia_kamiyai      
     |                                                
     |  +-------------------- Pletholophus_tenuis     
     |  |                                             
     |  |           +-------- Beringiana_japonica     
     |  |  +--------+                                 
     +--+  |        |  +----- Beringiana_beringiana   
        |  |        +--+                              
        |  |           |  +-- Beringiana_fukuharai    
        |  |           +--+                           
        +--+              +-- Beringiana_gosannensis  
           |                                          
           |              +-- Sinanodonta_angula      
           |  +-----------+                           
           |  |           +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
           |  |                                       
           +--+  +----------- Sinanodonta_schrenkii   
              |  |                                    
              |  |        +-- Sinanodonta_calipygos   
              |  +--------+                           
              +--+        +-- Sinanodonta_tumens      
                 |                                    
                 |  +-------- Sinanodonta_woodiana[2] 
                 |  |                                 
                 +--+  +----- Sinanodonta_elliptica   
                    |  |                              
                    +--+----- Sinanodonta_jourdyi     
                       |                              
                       |  +-- Sinanodonta_lauta       
                       +--+                           
                          +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana[1] 

Inoue et al., 2018, fig. 1, 3a-c

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
17 21 0 7 187 4 2 30.0
  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata **      
  |                              
  +-- Alasmidonta_heterodon **      
  |                              
  +-- Alasmidonta_undulata **       
  |                              
  +-- Beringiana_beringiana      
  |                              
  +-- Anodonta_kennerlyi         
  |                              
  +-- Anodonta_nuttalliana       
  |                              
  +-- Anodonta_oregonensis       
  |                              
  +-- Arcidens_confragosus **       
  |                              
  +-- Arcidens_wheeleri **          
  |                              
  +-- Lasmigona_complanata **       
  |                              
--+-- Lasmigona_compressa **        
  |                              
  +-- Lasmigona_costata **          
  |                              
  +-- Lasmigona_decorata **         
  |                              
  +-- Lasmigona_subviridis **       
  |                              
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **          
  |                              
  +-- Pyganodon_lacustris **        
  |                              
  +-- Pseudodontoideus_subvexus **  
  |                              
  +-- Strophitus_undulatus **       
  |                              
  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **     
  |                              
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis[1] **
  |                              
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis[2] **

Inoue et al., 2014, fig. 3A

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
15 15 12 7 6 0 0 24.0
        +----------- Pseudodontoideus_subvexus **  
  +-----+                                       
  |     |  +-------- Lasmigona_costata **          
  |     +--+                                    
  |        |  +----- Lasmigona_complanata **       
  |        +--+                                 
  |           |  +-- Arcidens_confragosus **       
--+           +--+                              
  |              +-- Arcidens_wheeleri **          
  |                                             
  |  +-------------- Strophitus_undulatus **       
  |  |                                          
  |  |     +-------- Pyganodon_grandis **          
  |  |  +--+                                    
  +--+  |  |  +----- Utterbackia_peninsularis[2] **
     |  |  +--+                                 
     |  |     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **     
     |  |     +--+                              
     +--+        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis[1] **
        |                                       
        |        +-- Lasmigona_compressa **        
        |  +-----+                              
        |  |     +-- Lasmigona_subviridis **       
        +--+                                    
           |  +----- Alasmidonta_marginata **      
           +--+                                 
              |  +-- Alasmidonta_undulata **       
              +--+                              
                 +-- Alasmidonta_varicosa **       

Zanatta et al., 2007, fig. 1A

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
14 16 9 4 2 2 1 23.0
                    +-- Lasmigona_compressa **        
                    |                              
  +-----------------+-- Lasmigona_costata **          
  |                 |                              
  |                 +-- Lasmigona_complanata **       
  |                                                
--+  +----------------- Anodonta_cygnea            
  |  |                                             
  |  |     +----------- Anodonta_kennerlyi         
  |  |  +--+                                       
  +--+  |  |  +-------- Utterbackiana_implicata **    
     |  |  +--+                                    
     |  |     |  +----- Utterbackiana_suborbiculata **
     |  |     +--+                                 
     |  |        |  +-- Utterbackiana_heardi **       
     +--+        +--+                              
        |           +-- Utterbackiana_couperiana **   
        |                                          
        |           +-- Utterbackia_peggyae **        
        |        +--+                              
        |        |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **     
        |        |                                 
        +--------+  +-- Pyganodon_gibbosa **          
                 |  |                              
                 |  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta **        
                 |  |                              
                 +--+-- Pyganodon_fragilis **         
                    |                              
                    +-- Pyganodon_grandis **          
                    |                              
                    +-- Pyganodon_lacustris **        

Zanatta et al., 2007, fig. 1B

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
14 16 12 4 2 2 1 25.0
                    +-- Lasmigona_costata **          
                    |                              
  +-----------------+-- Lasmigona_compressa **        
  |                 |                              
  |                 +-- Lasmigona_complanata **       
  |                                                
  |     +-------------- Anodonta_cygnea            
  |  +--+                                          
--+  |  |  +----------- Anodonta_kennerlyi         
  |  |  +--+                                       
  |  |     |  +-------- Utterbackiana_implicata **    
  |  |     +--+                                    
  |  |        |  +----- Utterbackiana_heardi **       
  |  |        +--+                                 
  +--+           |  +-- Utterbackiana_suborbiculata **
     |           +--+                              
     |              +-- Utterbackiana_couperiana **   
     |                                             
     |              +-- Utterbackia_peggyae **        
     |  +-----------+                              
     |  |           +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **     
     +--+                                          
        |  +----------- Pyganodon_lacustris **        
        +--+                                       
           |  +-------- Pyganodon_grandis **          
           +--+                                    
              |  +----- Pyganodon_fragilis **         
              +--+                                 
                 |  +-- Pyganodon_gibbosa **          
                 +--+                              
                    +-- Pyganodon_cataracta **        

Hoeh, 1990, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
14 16 12 4 2 2 1 25.0
                    +-- Lasmigona_complanata **       
                    |                              
  +-----------------+-- Lasmigona_compressa **        
  |                 |                              
  |                 +-- Lasmigona_costata **          
  |                                                
  |     +-------------- Anodonta_cygnea            
  |  +--+                                          
--+  |  |  +----------- Anodonta_kennerlyi         
  |  |  +--+                                       
  |  |     |  +-------- Utterbackiana_implicata **    
  |  |     +--+                                    
  |  |        |  +----- Utterbackiana_couperiana[2] **
  |  |        +--+                                 
  +--+           |  +-- Utterbackiana_suborbiculata **
     |           +--+                              
     |              +-- Utterbackiana_couperiana[1] **
     |                                             
     |              +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **     
     |  +-----------+                              
     |  |           +-- Utterbackia_peggyae **        
     +--+                                          
        |  +----------- Pyganodon_lacustris **        
        +--+                                       
           |  +-------- Pyganodon_grandis **          
           +--+                                    
              |  +----- Pyganodon_fragilis **         
              +--+                                 
                 |  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta **        
                 +--+                              
                    +-- Pyganodon_gibbosa **          

Hoeh, 1990, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
14 16 2 4 2 2 1 26.0
  +----- Pyganodon_fragilis **         
  |                                 
  +----- Utterbackia_imbecillis **     
  |                                 
  +----- Utterbackia_peggyae **        
  |                                 
  +----- Anodonta_cygnea            
  |                                 
  +----- Anodonta_kennerlyi         
  |                                 
  +----- Utterbackiana_couperiana[1] **
  |                                 
--+----- Utterbackiana_couperiana[2] **
  |                                 
  +----- Utterbackiana_suborbiculata **
  |                                 
  |  +-- Lasmigona_costata **          
  +--+                              
  |  +-- Utterbackiana_implicata **    
  |                                 
  |  +-- Lasmigona_complanata **       
  |  |                              
  |  +-- Lasmigona_compressa **        
  |  |                              
  |  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta **        
  +--+                              
     +-- Pyganodon_gibbosa **          
     |                              
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **          
     |                              
     +-- Pyganodon_lacustris **        

Hoeh, 1990, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
14 16 12 4 2 2 1 25.0
                    +-- Lasmigona_complanata **       
                    |                              
  +-----------------+-- Lasmigona_compressa **        
  |                 |                              
  |                 +-- Lasmigona_costata **          
  |                                                
  |     +-------------- Anodonta_cygnea            
  |  +--+                                          
--+  |  |  +----------- Anodonta_kennerlyi         
  |  |  +--+                                       
  |  |     |  +-------- Utterbackiana_implicata **    
  |  |     +--+                                    
  |  |        |  +----- Utterbackiana_couperiana[2] **
  |  |        +--+                                 
  +--+           |  +-- Utterbackiana_suborbiculata **
     |           +--+                              
     |              +-- Utterbackiana_couperiana[1] **
     |                                             
     |              +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **     
     |     +--------+                              
     |     |        +-- Utterbackia_peggyae **        
     +-----+                                       
           |  +-------- Pyganodon_fragilis **         
           |  |                                    
           +--+     +-- Pyganodon_cataracta **        
              |  +--+                              
              |  |  +-- Pyganodon_gibbosa **          
              +--+                                 
                 |  +-- Pyganodon_lacustris **        
                 +--+                              
                    +-- Pyganodon_grandis **          

Breton et al., 2011, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
12 12 9 5 27 1 1 21.0
  +-------------------- Cristaria_plicata          
  |                                                
  |                 +-- Lasmigona_complanata **       
--+  +--------------+                              
  |  |              +-- Lasmigona_costata **          
  |  |                                             
  +--+  +-------------- Strophitus_undulatus **       
     |  |                                          
     |  |           +-- Lasmigona_compressa **        
     |  |        +--+                              
     +--+        |  +-- Lasmigona_subviridis **       
        |  +-----+                                 
        |  |     |  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata **      
        |  |     +--+                              
        |  |        +-- Alasmidonta_undulata **       
        +--+                                       
           |        +-- Pyganodon_lacustris **        
           |  +-----+                              
           |  |     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **          
           +--+                                    
              |  +----- Utterbackia_peninsularis[2] **
              +--+                                 
                 |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis[1] **
                 +--+                              
                    +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **     

Chase et al., 2018, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
12 12 9 5 27 3 2 22.0
  +-------------------- Sinanodonta_woodiana       
  |                                                
  |                 +-- Anodonta_cygnea            
  |  +--------------+                              
--+  |              +-- Anodonta_anatina           
  |  |                                             
  |  |              +-- Pyganodon_lacustris **        
  |  |        +-----+                              
  +--+        |     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **          
     |  +-----+                                    
     |  |     |  +----- Utterbackia_peninsularis[2] **
     |  |     +--+                                 
     |  |        |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis[1] **
     |  |        +--+                              
     +--+           +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **     
        |                                          
        |           +-- Lasmigona_costata **          
        |  +--------+                              
        |  |        +-- Lasmigona_complanata **       
        |  |                                       
        +--+        +-- Alasmidonta_undulata **       
           |  +-----+                              
           |  |     +-- Alasmidonta_marginata **      
           +--+                                    
              |  +----- Strophitus_undulatus **       
              +--+                                 
                 |  +-- Lasmigona_compressa **        
                 +--+                              
                    +-- Lasmigona_subviridis **       

Krebs et al., 2003, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
9 10 5 6 25 1 1 15.0
  +----------- Utterbackiana_couperiana **
  |                                    
  +----------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
  |                                    
  +----------- Alasmidonta_triangulata ** 
  |                                    
--+        +-- Lasmigona_complanata **    
  +--------+                           
  |        +-- Lasmigona_costata **       
  |                                    
  |        +-- Strophitus_radiatus **     
  |  +-----+                           
  |  |     +-- Strophitus_undulatus **    
  +--+                                 
     |  +----- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                              
        |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       
        +--+                           
           +-- Anodonta                

King et al., 1999, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
9 9 6 4 0 0 0 19.0
              +-- Pyganodon_grandis **    
  +-----------+                        
  |           +-- Pyganodon_fragilis **   
  |                                    
--+        +----- Lasmigona_costata **    
  |  +-----+                           
  |  |     |  +-- Lasmigona_complanata ** 
  |  |     +--+                        
  +--+        +-- Lasmigona_alabamensis **
     |                                 
     |  +-------- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
     +--+                              
        |  +----- Alasmidonta_heterodon **
        +--+                           
           |  +-- Lasmigona_subviridis ** 
           +--+                        
              +-- Lasmigona_compressa **  

King et al., 1999, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
9 9 2 3 0 0 0 19.0
        +-- Lasmigona_complanata **   
  +-----+                          
  |     +-- Lasmigona_costata **      
  |                                
--+  +----- Alasmidonta_heterodon **  
  |  |                             
  |  +----- Strophitus_undulatus **   
  |  |                             
  +--+  +-- Lasmigona_compressa **    
     |  |                          
     |  +-- Lasmigona_subviridis[1] **
     |  |                          
     +--+-- Lasmigona_subviridis[2] **
        |                          
        +-- Lasmigona_subviridis[3] **
        |                          
        +-- Lasmigona_subviridis[4] **

Boyer et al., 2011, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
9 9 6 7 29 0 0 22.0
  +-------------- Strophitus_undulatus **      
  |                                         
  |        +----- Lasmigona_complanata **      
--+  +-----+                                
  |  |     |  +-- Lasmigona_costata **         
  |  |     +--+                             
  +--+        +-- Arcidens_confragosus **      
     |                                      
     |  +-------- Utterbackia_imbecillis **    
     |  |                                   
     +--+-------- Alasmidonta_marginata **     
        |                                   
        |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **         
        +--+                                
           |  +-- Anodontoides_ferussacianus **
           +--+                             
              +-- Lasmigona_compressa **       

Chong et al., 2008, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
8 21 10 5 13 12 2 30.0
  +----------------- Anodonta_cygnea          
  |                                           
  +----------------- Pyganodon_fragilis **       
  |                                           
  +----------------- Lasmigona_holstonia **      
  |                                           
  +----------------- Anodonta_anatina         
  |                                           
  +----------------- Unio_tumidus             
  |                                           
  |              +-- Anodonta_nuttalliana     
  +--------------+                            
  |              +-- Anodonta_californiensis  
  |                                           
--+              +-- Beringiana_beringiana    
  +--------------+                            
  |              +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana     
  |                                           
  |              +-- Pseudodontoideus_subvexus **
  |              |                            
  +--------------+-- Alasmidonta_marginata **    
  |              |                            
  |              +-- Lasmigona_complanata **     
  |                                           
  |  +-------------- Pseudanodonta_complanata 
  |  |                                        
  |  |        +----- Strophitus_undulatus **     
  |  +--------+                               
  +--+        |  +-- Alasmidonta_heterodon **    
     |        +--+                            
     |           +-- Lasmigona_compressa **      
     |                                        
     |  +----------- Anodonta_oregonensis[4]  
     +--+                                     
        |  +-------- Anodonta_oregonensis[3]  
        +--+                                  
           |  +----- Anodonta_oregonensis[2]  
           +--+                               
              |  +-- Anodonta_oregonensis[1]  
              +--+                            
                 +-- Anodonta_kennerlyi       

Cyr et al., 2007, fig. 2C

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
8 8 2 1 1 1 1 18.0
  +----------- Pseudanodonta_complanata
  |                                    
  |        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       
--+  +-----+                           
  |  |     +-- Pyganodon[1] **            
  |  |                                 
  +--+  +----- Pyganodon[3] **            
     |  |                              
     |  |  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta[1] **  
     +--+  |                           
        |  +-- Pyganodon_fragilis[1] **   
        |  |                           
        +--+-- Pyganodon[2] **            
           |                           
           +-- Pyganodon_cataracta[2] **  
           |                           
           +-- Pyganodon_fragilis[2] **   

Hoeh et al., 1995, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
7 7 3 2 0 0 0 19.0
     +----- Utterbackia_peggyae **     
  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  |  +--+                           
--+     +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  |                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_lacustris **     
  |  |                              
  +--+----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
     |                              
     |  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta **     
     +--+                           
        +-- Pyganodon_fragilis **      

Inoue et al., 2014, fig. 3B

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
7 7 2 3 1 0 0 20.0
  +-------- Pyganodon_grandis **   
  |                             
  +-------- Pyganodon_cataracta ** 
  |                             
--+-------- Pyganodon_fragilis **  
  |                             
  +-------- Pyganodon **           
  |                             
  |  +----- Lasmigona_subviridis **
  +--+                          
     |  +-- Arcidens_confragosus **
     +--+                       
        +-- Arcidens_wheeleri **   

Huang et al., 2019, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
7 11 4 6 192 13 2 20.0
     +-------------------- Anemina_arcaeformis     
     |                                             
  +--+  +----------------- Cristaria_plicata       
  |  |  |                                          
  |  +--+  +-------------- Pletholophus_tenuis     
  |     |  |                                       
  |     +--+           +-- Sinanodonta_angula      
  |        |  +--------+                           
  |        |  |        +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
  |        +--+                                    
  |           |  +-------- Sinanodonta_woodiana[2] 
  |           +--+                                 
  |              |  +----- Sinanodonta[2]          
  |              +--+                              
--+                 |  +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana[1] 
  |                 +--+                           
  |                    +-- Sinanodonta[1]          
  |                                                
  |              +-------- Alasmidonta_marginata **   
  |              |                                 
  |              +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
  |              |                                 
  |              +-------- Pseudanodonta_complanata
  |              |                                 
  |              +-------- Simpsonaias_ambigua **     
  |              |                                 
  +--------------+-------- Strophitus_undulatus **    
                 |                                 
                 |  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
                 +--+                              
                 |  |  +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
                 |  +--+                           
                 |     +-- Anodonta_nuttalliana    
                 |                                 
                 |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
                 +--+                              
                    |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
                    +--+                           
                       +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Huang et al., 2019, fig. S3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
7 11 8 6 190 13 2 19.0
     +-------------------- Anemina_arcaeformis     
     |                                             
  +--+  +----------------- Cristaria_plicata       
  |  |  |                                          
  |  +--+  +-------------- Pletholophus_tenuis     
  |     |  |                                       
  |     +--+           +-- Sinanodonta_angula      
  |        |  +--------+                           
  |        |  |        +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
  |        +--+                                    
  |           |  +-------- Sinanodonta_woodiana[2] 
  |           +--+                                 
  |              |  +----- Sinanodonta[2]          
--+              +--+                              
  |                 |  +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana[1] 
  |                 +--+                           
  |                    +-- Sinanodonta[1]          
  |                                                
  |                    +-- Alasmidonta_marginata **   
  |           +--------+                           
  |           |        +-- Lasmigona_compressa **     
  |           |                                    
  |           |     +----- Anodonta_anatina        
  |           +-----+                              
  |           |     |  +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
  +-----------+     +--+                           
              |        +-- Anodonta_nuttalliana    
              |                                    
              |     +----- Pseudanodonta_complanata
              |  +--+                              
              |  |  |  +-- Simpsonaias_ambigua **     
              |  |  +--+                           
              +--+     +-- Strophitus_undulatus **    
                 |                                 
                 |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
                 +--+                              
                    |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
                    +--+                           
                       +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Huang et al., 2019, fig. S4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
7 44 21 6 192 13 2 52.0
  +----------------- Acuticosta_chinensis       
  |                                             
  +----------------- Alasmidonta_marginata **      
  |                                             
  +----------------- Anodonta_anatina           
  |                                             
  +----------------- Anemina_arcaeformis        
  |                                             
  +----------------- Anodonta_cygnea            
  |                                             
  +----------------- Cristaria_plicata          
  |                                             
  +----------------- Anodonta_nuttalliana       
  |                                             
  +----------------- Lasmigona_compressa **        
  |                                             
  +----------------- Lepidodesma_languilati     
  |                                             
  +----------------- Pseudanodonta_complanata   
  |                                             
  +----------------- Pyganodon_grandis **          
  |                                             
  +----------------- Simpsonaias_ambigua **        
  |                                             
  +----------------- Strophitus_undulatus **       
  |                                             
  |              +-- Schistodesmus_lampreyanus  
  +--------------+                              
  |              +-- Schistodesmus_spinosus     
  |                                             
  |              +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **     
  +--------------+                              
  |              +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **   
  |                                             
  |        +-------- Lanceolaria_gladiola       
  +--------+                                    
  |        |  +----- Lanceolaria_grayii         
  |        +--+                                 
--+           |  +-- Lanceolaria_lanceolata     
  |           +--+                              
  |              +-- Lanceolaria_triformis      
  |                                             
  |        +-------- Unio_tumidus               
  +--------+                                    
  |        |  +----- Unio_crassus               
  |        +--+                                 
  |           |  +-- Unio_delphinus             
  |           +--+                              
  |              +-- Unio_pictorum              
  |                                             
  |        +-------- Aculamprotula_tortuosa     
  |        |                                    
  +--------+     +-- Aculamprotula_coreana      
  |        |  +--+                              
  |        |  |  +-- Aculamprotula_scripta      
  |        +--+                                 
  |           |  +-- Aculamprotula_fibrosa      
  |           +--+                              
  |              +-- Aculamprotula_tientsinensis
  |                                             
  |        +-------- Cuneopsis_heudei           
  |        |                                    
  |        +-------- Cuneopsis_celtiformis      
  |        |                                    
  +--------+-------- Arcuneopsis_pisciculus     
  |        |                                    
  |        +-------- Cuneopsis_rufescens        
  |        |                                    
  |        |  +----- Nodularia_douglasiae[2]    
  |        +--+                                 
  |           |  +-- Nodularia_douglasiae[1]    
  |           +--+                              
  |              +-- Nodularia_nuxpersicae      
  |                                             
  |  +-------------- Pletholophus_tenuis        
  |  |                                          
  +--+           +-- Sinanodonta_angula         
     |  +--------+                              
     |  |        +-- Sinanodonta_lucida         
     +--+                                       
        |  +-------- Sinanodonta_woodiana[1]    
        +--+                                    
           |  +----- Sinanodonta[1]             
           +--+                                 
              |  +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana[2]    
              +--+                              
                 +-- Sinanodonta[2]             

Lydeard et al., 1996, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
6 6 4 5 21 0 0 17.0
     +----- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Utterbackiana_couperiana **
  |  +--+                           
--+     +-- Utterbackiana **           
  |                                 
  |  +----- Strophitus_radiatus **     
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Lasmigona_costata **       
     +--+                           
        +-- Alasmidonta_triangulata ** 

Boyer et al., 2011, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
6 6 2 4 29 0 0 18.0
  +----- Alasmidonta_marginata **
  |                           
  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **    
  |                           
--+  +-- Lasmigona_complanata ** 
  +--+                        
  |  +-- Lasmigona_costata **    
  |                           
  |  +-- Lasmigona_compressa **  
  +--+                        
     +-- Strophitus_undulatus ** 

Hewitt et al., 2018, fig. 5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
6 6 3 4 3 0 0 18.0
  +-------- Pyganodon_grandis **   
  |                             
  |     +-- Lasmigona_subviridis **
--+-----+                       
  |     +-- Strophitus_undulatus **
  |                             
  |  +----- Lasmigona_costata **   
  +--+                          
     |  +-- Arcidens_wheeleri **   
     +--+                       
        +-- Lasmigona_complanata **

Sano et al., 2020, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
6 6 4 4 69 18 2 16.0
           +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
  +--------+                           
  |        +-- Anodonta_anatina        
  |                                    
--+     +----- Alasmidonta_varicosa **    
  |  +--+                              
  |  |  |  +-- Alasmidonta_heterodon **   
  |  |  +--+                           
  +--+     +-- Lasmigona_compressa **     
     |                                 
     |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
     +--+                              
        |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
        +--+                           
           +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Sano et al., 2020, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
6 6 4 4 69 18 2 16.0
           +-- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--------+                           
  |        +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
  |                                    
--+     +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
  |  +--+                              
  |  |  |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  |  |  +--+                           
  +--+     +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     |                                 
     |  +----- Alasmidonta_varicosa **    
     +--+                              
        |  +-- Lasmigona_compressa **     
        +--+                           
           +-- Alasmidonta_heterodon **   

Sano et al., 2020, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
6 6 4 4 69 18 2 16.0
           +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
  +--------+                           
  |        +-- Anodonta_anatina        
  |                                    
--+     +----- Alasmidonta_varicosa **    
  |  +--+                              
  |  |  |  +-- Alasmidonta_heterodon **   
  |  |  +--+                           
  +--+     +-- Lasmigona_compressa **     
     |                                 
     |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
     +--+                              
        |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
        +--+                           
           +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Chen et al., 2020, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
6 34 31 4 28 5 2 48.0
                       +----- Alasmidonta_heterodon **      
                    +--+                                 
                    |  |  +-- Alasmidonta_varicosa **       
                    |  +--+                              
                    |     +-- Anemina_euscaphys          
  +-----------------+                                    
  |                 |     +-- Lamprotula_caveata         
  |                 |  +--+                              
  |                 |  |  +-- Chamberlainia_hainesiana   
  |                 +--+                                 
  |                    |  +-- Monodontina_vondembuschiana
  |                    +--+                              
  |                       +-- Pilsbryoconcha_exilis      
  |                                                      
  |                 +-------- Schistodesmus_lampreyanus  
  |           +-----+                                    
  |           |     |  +----- Lepidodesma_languilati     
  |           |     +--+                                 
--+           |        |  +-- Aculamprotula_coreana      
  |           |        +--+                              
  |  +--------+           +-- Aculamprotula_tortuosa     
  |  |        |                                          
  |  |        |        +----- Lasmigona_compressa **        
  |  |        |  +-----+                                 
  |  |        |  |     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **     
  |  |        |  |     +--+                              
  |  |        +--+        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **          
  |  |           |                                       
  |  |           |  +-------- Sinanodonta_lucida         
  |  |           +--+                                    
  |  |              |  +----- Cristaria_plicata          
  |  |              +--+                                 
  +--+                 |  +-- Anodonta_cygnea            
     |                 +--+                              
     |                    +-- Anodonta_anatina           
     |                                                   
     |     +----------------- Gibbosula_crassa           
     |  +--+                                             
     |  |  |  +-------------- Quadrula_quadrula          
     |  |  +--+                                          
     |  |     |  +----------- Toxolasma_parvum           
     |  |     +--+                                       
     |  |        |  +-------- Lampsilis_ornata           
     |  |        +--+                                    
     |  |           |  +----- Potamilus_leptodon         
     +--+           +--+                                 
        |              |  +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      
        |              +--+                              
        |                 +-- Lampsilis_powellii         
        |                                                
        |                 +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **   
        |  +--------------+                              
        |  |              +-- Potamilus_alatus           
        +--+                                             
           |  +-------------- Lamprotula_leaii           
           |  |                                          
           +--+           +-- Sinohyriopsis_cumingii     
              |  +--------+                              
              |  |        +-- Sinohyriopsis_schlegelii   
              +--+                                       
                 |  +-------- Parvasolenaia_rivularis    
                 +--+                                    
                    |  +----- Sinosolenaia_carinata      
                    +--+                                 
                       |  +-- Sinosolenaia_iridinea      
                       +--+                              
                          +-- Sinosolenaia_oleivora      

Graf & Ó Foighil, 2000, fig. 2A

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 2 4 25 1 1 17.0
  +----------- Anodonta_cygnea      
  |                                 
--+        +-- Alasmidonta_marginata **
  |  +-----+                        
  |  |     +-- Lasmigona_compressa **  
  +--+                              
     |  +----- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
     +--+                           
        |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **    
        +--+                        
           +-- Pyganodon_fragilis **   

Graf & Ó Foighil, 2000, fig. 2B

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 2 4 25 1 1 17.0
  +----------- Anodonta_cygnea      
  |                                 
--+        +-- Alasmidonta_marginata **
  |  +-----+                        
  |  |     +-- Lasmigona_compressa **  
  +--+                              
     |  +----- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
     +--+                           
        |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **    
        +--+                        
           +-- Pyganodon_fragilis **   

Lydeard et al., 1996, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 6 4 5 23 1 1 17.0
     +----- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Utterbackiana_couperiana **
  |  +--+                           
--+     +-- Anodonta                
  |                                 
  |  +----- Strophitus_radiatus **     
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Lasmigona_costata **       
     +--+                           
        +-- Alasmidonta_triangulata ** 

Huang et al., 2002, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 3 5 29 2 1 17.0
              +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
  +-----------+                           
  |           +-- Cristaria_plicata       
--+                                       
  |  +----------- Utterbackiana_couperiana **
  +--+                                    
     |  +-------- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Strophitus_radiatus **     
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Alasmidonta_triangulata ** 
           +--+                           
              +-- Lasmigona_costata **       

Huang et al., 2002, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 14 5 5 29 2 1 25.0
  +-------- Strophitus_radiatus **      
  |                                  
  +-------- Schistodesmus_lampreyanus
  |                                  
  +-------- Lepidodesma_languilati   
  |                                  
  +-------- Acuticosta_ovata         
  |                                  
  |     +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana     
  +-----+                            
  |     +-- Cristaria_plicata        
--+                                  
  |     +-- Lanceolaria_grayii       
  +-----+                            
  |     +-- Lanceolaria_lanceolata   
  |                                  
  |     +-- Nodularia_douglasiae     
  +-----+                            
  |     +-- Arcuneopsis_pisciculus   
  |                                  
  |  +----- Utterbackia_imbecillis **   
  |  |                               
  +--+----- Utterbackiana_couperiana ** 
     |                               
     |  +-- Alasmidonta_triangulata **  
     +--+                            
        +-- Lasmigona_costata **        

Cyr et al., 2007, fig. 2A

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 2 1 1 0 0 18.0
  +-------- Pyganodon_grandis **  
  |                            
--+-------- Pyganodon[2] **       
  |                            
  |  +----- Pyganodon[1] **       
  +--+                         
     |  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta **
     +--+                      
        +-- Pyganodon_fragilis ** 

Cyr et al., 2007, fig. 2B

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 2 1 1 1 1 18.0
  +----------- Anodonta_nuttalliana
  |                                
--+        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **   
  |  +-----+                       
  |  |     +-- Pyganodon[1] **        
  +--+                             
     |  +----- Pyganodon[2] **        
     +--+                          
        |  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta ** 
        +--+                       
           +-- Pyganodon_fragilis **  

Cyr et al., 2007, fig. 2D

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 2 1 0 0 0 18.0
  +-------- Pyganodon_grandis **  
  |                            
--+-------- Pyganodon[2] **       
  |                            
  |  +----- Pyganodon[1] **       
  +--+                         
     |  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta **
     +--+                      
        +-- Pyganodon_fragilis ** 

Lopes-Lima et al., 2017, fig. 1-2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 2 5 76 9 2 15.0
     +----------- Cristaria_plicata       
  +--+                                    
  |  |  +-------- Anemina_arcaeformis     
  |  +--+                                 
  |     |  +----- Pletholophus_tenuis     
  |     +--+                              
  |        |  +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
  |        +--+                           
--+           +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
  |                                       
  |        +----- Pseudanodonta_complanata
  |        |                              
  |  +-----+  +-- Anodonta_anatina        
  |  |     |  |                           
  |  |     +--+-- Anodonta_cygnea         
  |  |        |                           
  +--+        +-- Anodonta_nuttalliana    
     |                                    
     |        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       
     |  +-----+                           
     |  |     +-- Simpsonaias_ambigua **     
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Strophitus_undulatus **    
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata **   
           +--+                           
              +-- Lasmigona_compressa **     

Bolotov et al., 2017, fig. S1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 2 5 133 10 2 17.0
  +-------------- Anodonta_anatina        
  |                                       
  |        +----- Pseudanodonta_complanata
--+  +-----+                              
  |  |     |  +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
  |  |     +--+                           
  |  |        +-- Anodonta_nuttalliana    
  +--+                                    
     |        +-- Lasmigona_compressa **     
     |  +-----+                           
     |  |     +-- Alasmidonta_marginata **   
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Simpsonaias_ambigua **     
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       
           +--+                           
              +-- Strophitus_undulatus **    

Bolotov et al., 2017, fig. S2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 1 5 133 10 2 16.0
  +-------- Anodonta_anatina        
  |                                 
  +-------- Pseudanodonta_complanata
  |                                 
  |     +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
--+-----+                           
  |     +-- Anodonta_nuttalliana    
  |                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
  |  |                              
  |  +----- Simpsonaias_ambigua **     
  +--+                              
     +----- Strophitus_undulatus **    
     |                              
     |  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata **   
     +--+                           
        +-- Lasmigona_compressa **     

Bolotov et al., 2017, fig. S1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 18 0 5 120 10 2 30.0
  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata **   
  |                           
  +-- Anodonta_anatina        
  |                           
  +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
  |                           
  +-- Anodonta_nuttalliana    
  |                           
  +-- Lasmigona_compressa **     
  |                           
  +-- Pseudanodonta_complanata
  |                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       
  |                           
  +-- Simpsonaias_ambigua **     
  |                           
  +-- Strophitus_undulatus **    
--+                           
  +-- Anemina                 
  |                           
  +-- Cristaria_plicata       
  |                           
  +-- Cristaria               
  |                           
  +-- Pletholophus_tenuis     
  |                           
  +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
  |                           
  +-- Sinanodonta             
  |                           
  +-- Lanceolaria_gladiola    
  |                           
  +-- Lanceolaria_grayii[1]   
  |                           
  +-- Lanceolaria_grayii[2]   

Guerra et al., 2017, fig. 2a

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 2 3 20 3 2 16.0
  +-------------- Cristaria_plicata       
  |                                       
--+  +----------- Anodonta_anatina        
  |  |                                    
  +--+        +-- Lasmigona_subviridis **    
     |  +-----+                           
     |  |     +-- Lasmigona_compressa **     
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
           +--+                           
              +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Guerra et al., 2017, fig. 2b

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 2 3 20 3 2 16.0
              +-- Cristaria_plicata       
  +-----------+                           
  |           +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
--+                                       
  |  +----------- Anodonta_anatina        
  |  |                                    
  +--+        +-- Lasmigona_subviridis **    
     |  +-----+                           
     |  |     +-- Lasmigona_compressa **     
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
           +--+                           
              +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Amaro et al., 2017, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 2 3 11 0 0 16.0
        +-- Lasmigona_costata **       
  +-----+                           
  |     +-- Lasmigona_compressa **     
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Bolotov et al., 2018, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 3 5 80 5 2 15.0
           +-------- Cristaria_plicata    
  +--------+                              
  |        |  +----- Pletholophus_tenuis  
  |        +--+                           
  |           |  +-- Sinanodonta          
--+           +--+                        
  |              +-- Anemina              
  |                                       
  |  +-------------- Anodonta_anatina     
  +--+                                    
     |  +----------- Pyganodon_grandis **    
     +--+                                 
        |  +-------- Simpsonaias_ambigua **  
        +--+                              
           |  +----- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
           +--+                           
              |  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata **
              +--+                        
                 +-- Lasmigona_compressa **  

Wu et al., 2018, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 2 4 53 12 2 18.0
  +-------------- Anodonta_cygnea      
  |                                    
--+  +----------- Anodonta_anatina     
  |  |                                 
  +--+  +-------- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
     |  |                              
     +--+  +----- Lasmigona_compressa **  
        |  |                           
        +--+----- Alasmidonta_marginata **
           |                           
           |  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta **  
           +--+                        
              +-- Pyganodon_grandis **    

Aunins et al., 2018, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 2 3 36 7 2 16.0
        +-------- Cristaria_plicata       
        |                                 
  +-----+     +-- Anemina_arcaeformis     
  |     |  +--+                           
  |     |  |  +-- Anemina_euscaphys       
  |     +--+                              
  |        |  +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
  |        +--+                           
--+           +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
  |                                       
  |           +-- Anodonta_anatina        
  |  +--------+                           
  |  |        +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
  |  |                                    
  +--+        +-- Alasmidonta_heterodon **   
     |  +-----+                           
     |  |     +-- Alasmidonta_varicosa **    
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
           +--+                           
              +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Guerra et al., 2019, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 2 3 36 2 2 16.0
  +-------------- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
  |                                       
--+  +----------- Anodonta_anatina        
  |  |                                    
  +--+        +-- Lasmigona_compressa **     
     |  +-----+                           
     |  |     +-- Lasmigona_subviridis **    
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
           +--+                           
              +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Guerra et al., 2019, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 2 3 36 2 2 16.0
  +-------------- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
  |                                       
--+  +----------- Anodonta_anatina        
  |  |                                    
  +--+        +-- Lasmigona_compressa **     
     |  +-----+                           
     |  |     +-- Lasmigona_subviridis **    
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
           +--+                           
              +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Jeratthitikul et al., 2022, fig. S1, 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 2 5 71 9 2 15.0
     +----------- Cristaria_plicata       
  +--+                                    
  |  |  +-------- Pletholophus_tenuis     
  |  +--+                                 
  |     |  +----- Sinanodonta_lucida      
  |     +--+                              
  |        |  +-- Sinanodonta_lauta       
  |        +--+                           
--+           +-- Sinanodonta_jourdyi     
  |                                       
  |     +-------- Pseudanodonta_complanata
  |  +--+                                 
  |  |  |  +----- Anodonta_nuttalliana    
  |  |  +--+                              
  |  |     |  +-- Anodonta_anatina        
  |  |     +--+                           
  +--+        +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
     |                                    
     |        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       
     |  +-----+                           
     |  |     +-- Simpsonaias_ambigua **     
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Strophitus_undulatus **    
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata **   
           +--+                           
              +-- Lasmigona_compressa **     

Jeratthitikul et al., 2022, fig. S2, 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 5 2 5 71 9 2 17.0
     +----------- Cristaria_plicata       
  +--+                                    
  |  |  +-------- Pletholophus_tenuis     
  |  +--+                                 
  |     |  +----- Sinanodonta_lucida      
  |     +--+                              
  |        |  +-- Sinanodonta_jourdyi     
  |        +--+                           
--+           +-- Sinanodonta_lauta       
  |                                       
  |     +-------- Pseudanodonta_complanata
  |  +--+                                 
  |  |  |  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
  |  |  +--+                              
  |  |     |  +-- Anodonta_nuttalliana    
  |  |     +--+                           
  +--+        +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
     |                                    
     |        +-- Alasmidonta_marginata **   
     |  +-----+                           
     |  |     +-- Lasmigona_compressa **     
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Strophitus_undulatus **    
           +--+                           
              +-- Simpsonaias_ambigua **     

Graf & Cummings, 2006, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 4 43 0 0 18.0
  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **  
--+                              
  |  +----- Alasmidonta_marginata **
  +--+                           
     |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **    
     +--+                        
        +-- Strophitus_undulatus ** 

Campbell et al., 2005, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 5 2 3 113 2 1 17.0
  +----------- Anodonta_oregonensis     
  |                                     
--+        +-- Anodonta_cygnea          
  |  +-----+                            
  |  |     +-- Lasmigona_etowaensis **     
  +--+                                  
     |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **        
     +--+                               
        |  +-- Lasmigona_costata **        
        +--+                            
           +-- Pseudodontoideus_subvexus **

Campbell et al., 2005, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 6 3 3 111 2 1 17.0
  +-------- Pyganodon_grandis **        
  |                                  
  |     +-- Lasmigona_costata **        
--+-----+                            
  |     +-- Pseudodontoideus_subvexus **
  |                                  
  |  +----- Lasmigona_etowaensis **     
  +--+                               
     |  +-- Anodonta_cygnea          
     +--+                            
        +-- Anodonta_oregonensis     

Hoeh et al., 2009, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 4 43 0 0 18.0
  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **  
--+                              
  |  +----- Alasmidonta_marginata **
  +--+                           
     |  +-- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
     +--+                        
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **    

Hoeh et al., 2009, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 4 42 0 0 18.0
  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **  
--+                              
  |  +----- Alasmidonta_marginata **
  +--+                           
     |  +-- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
     +--+                        
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **    

Hoeh et al., 2009, fig. 5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 4 42 0 0 18.0
  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **  
--+                              
  |  +----- Alasmidonta_marginata **
  +--+                           
     |  +-- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
     +--+                        
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **    

Huang et al., 2013, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 12 2 1 15.0
           +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
  +--------+                           
  |        +-- Cristaria_plicata       
--+                                    
  |  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
  +--+                                 
     |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
     +--+                              
        |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
        +--+                           
           +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Jadhav & Jamkhedkar, 2009, fig. 11

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 1 4 22 2 1 17.0
  +-------- Anodonta             
  |                              
--+  +----- Lasmigona_compressa **  
  |  |                           
  +--+  +-- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
     |  |                        
     +--+-- Alasmidonta_marginata **
        |                        
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **    

Zhou et al., 2016, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 16 2 1 15.0
  +-------------- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
--+                                       
  |  +----------- Cristaria_plicata       
  +--+                                    
     |  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
           +--+                           
              +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Fonseca et al., 2016, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 28 6 2 15.0
        +-------- Cristaria_plicata       
        |                                 
  +-----+     +-- Anemina_euscaphys       
  |     |  +--+                           
  |     |  |  +-- Anemina_arcaeformis     
  |     +--+                              
--+        |  +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
  |        +--+                           
  |           +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
  |                                       
  |  +----------- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                                    
     |  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
           +--+                           
              +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Amaro et al., 2017, fig. 2-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 1 3 6 0 0 16.0
  +----- Pyganodon_grandis[2] **    
  |                              
--+  +-- Lasmigona_costata **       
  |  |                           
  +--+-- Pyganodon_grandis[1] **    
     |                           
     +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Amaro et al., 2017, fig. 3A

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 8 0 0 15.0
  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Amaro et al., 2017, fig. 3B

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 8 0 0 15.0
  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Lopes-Lima et al., 2017, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 29 6 2 15.0
     +----------- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                                    
  |  |  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
  |  +--+                                 
  |     |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
  |     +--+                              
--+        |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  |        +--+                           
  |           +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  |                                       
  |     +-------- Cristaria_plicata       
  |     |                                 
  +-----+     +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
        |  +--+                           
        |  |  +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Anemina_arcaeformis     
           +--+                           
              +-- Anemina_euscaphys       

Huang et al., 2018, fig. 6

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 39 6 2 15.0
     +----------- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                                    
  |  |  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
  |  +--+                                 
  |     |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
  |     +--+                              
--+        |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  |        +--+                           
  |           +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  |                                       
  |     +-------- Cristaria_plicata       
  |     |                                 
  +-----+     +-- Anemina_arcaeformis     
        |  +--+                           
        |  |  +-- Anemina_euscaphys       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
           +--+                           
              +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      

Soroka & Burzynski, 2017, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 20 7 2 15.0
        +-------- Cristaria_plicata       
        |                                 
  +-----+     +-- Anemina_arcaeformis     
  |     |  +--+                           
  |     |  |  +-- Anemina_euscaphys       
  |     +--+                              
  |        |  +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
--+        +--+                           
  |           +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
  |                                       
  |           +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
  |  +--------+                           
  |  |        +-- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                                    
     |  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
           +--+                           
              +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Huang et al., 2019, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 53 7 2 15.0
  +-------------- Anodonta_cygnea         
--+                                       
  |  +----------- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                                    
     |  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
           +--+                           
              +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Wu et al., 2019, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 43 6 2 15.0
     +----------- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                                    
  |  |  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
  |  +--+                                 
  |     |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
  |     +--+                              
--+        |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  |        +--+                           
  |           +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  |                                       
  |     +-------- Cristaria_plicata       
  |     |                                 
  +-----+     +-- Anemina_arcaeformis     
        |  +--+                           
        |  |  +-- Anemina_euscaphys       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
           +--+                           
              +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    

Cha et al., 2018, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 35 6 2 15.0
     +----------- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                                    
  |  |  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
  |  +--+                                 
  |     |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
  |     +--+                              
--+        |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  |        +--+                           
  |           +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  |                                       
  |     +-------- Cristaria_plicata       
  |     |                                 
  +-----+     +-- Anemina_arcaeformis     
        |  +--+                           
        |  |  +-- Anemina_euscaphys       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
           +--+                           
              +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    

Froufe et al., 2019, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 41 6 2 15.0
        +-------- Cristaria_plicata       
        |                                 
  +-----+     +-- Anemina_arcaeformis     
  |     |  +--+                           
  |     |  |  +-- Anemina_euscaphys       
  |     +--+                              
--+        |  +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
  |        +--+                           
  |           +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
  |                                       
  |  +----------- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                                    
     |  +-------- Lasmigona_complanata **    
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
           +--+                           
              +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Froufe et al., 2019, fig. 6

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 40 6 2 15.0
     +----------- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                                    
  |  |  +-------- Lasmigona_complanata **    
  |  +--+                                 
  |     |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
  |     +--+                              
--+        |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  |        +--+                           
  |           +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  |                                       
  |     +-------- Cristaria_plicata       
  |     |                                 
  +-----+     +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
        |  +--+                           
        |  |  +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Anemina_arcaeformis     
           +--+                           
              +-- Anemina_euscaphys       

Riccardi et al., 2019, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 16 10 2 15.0
           +----- Pseudanodonta_complanata
  +--------+                              
  |        |  +-- Anodonta_exulcerata     
  |        +--+                           
--+           +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
  |                                       
  |  +----------- Anodonta_nuttalliana    
  +--+                                    
     |  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
           +--+                           
              +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Fukata & Iigo, 2020, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 50 7 2 15.0
     +-------- Cristaria_plicata       
     |                                 
  +--+     +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
  |  |  +--+                           
  |  |  |  +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
  |  +--+                              
  |     |  +-- Anemina_arcaeformis     
  |     +--+                           
--+        +-- Anemina_euscaphys       
  |                                    
  |        +-- Anodonta_anatina        
  |  +-----+                           
  |  |     +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
  |  |                                 
  +--+     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       
     |  +--+                           
     |  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                              
        |  +-- Alasmidonta_varicosa **    
        +--+                           
           +-- Alasmidonta_heterodon **   

Wu et al., 2020, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 46 6 2 15.0
     +----------- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                                    
  |  |  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
  |  +--+                                 
  |     |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
  |     +--+                              
--+        |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  |        +--+                           
  |           +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  |                                       
  |     +-------- Cristaria_plicata       
  |     |                                 
  +-----+     +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
        |  +--+                           
        |  |  +-- Sinanodonta_lauta       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Anemina_arcaeformis     
           +--+                           
              +-- Anemina_euscaphys       

Zieritz et al., 2021, fig. 3-F, 5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 45 6 2 15.0
     +----------- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                                    
  |  |  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
  |  +--+                                 
  |     |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
  |     +--+                              
--+        |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  |        +--+                           
  |           +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  |                                       
  |     +-------- Cristaria_plicata       
  |     |                                 
  +-----+     +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
        |  +--+                           
        |  |  +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Anemina_arcaeformis     
           +--+                           
              +-- Anemina_euscaphys       

Wu et al., 2022, fig. 2d

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 35 7 2 15.0
        +-------- Cristaria_plicata       
        |                                 
  +-----+     +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
  |     |  +--+                           
  |     |  |  +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
  |     +--+                              
  |        |  +-- Anemina_arcaeformis     
--+        +--+                           
  |           +-- Anemina_euscaphys       
  |                                       
  |           +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
  |  +--------+                           
  |  |        +-- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                                    
     |  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
           +--+                           
              +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Wu et al., 2022, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 3 70 7 2 15.0
        +-------- Cristaria_plicata       
        |                                 
  +-----+     +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
  |     |  +--+                           
  |     |  |  +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
  |     +--+                              
  |        |  +-- Anemina_arcaeformis     
--+        +--+                           
  |           +-- Anemina_euscaphys       
  |                                       
  |           +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
  |  +--------+                           
  |  |        +-- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                                    
     |  +-------- Lasmigona_compressa **     
     +--+                                 
        |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
        +--+                              
           |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
           +--+                           
              +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Rosenberg et al., 1994, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 10 0 2 16 0 0 23.0
  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta **   
  |                         
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **     
  |                         
  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **
  |                         
  +-- Lampsilis_teres       
  |                         
  +-- Lampsilis_straminea   
--+                         
  +-- Megalonaias_nervosa   
  |                         
  +-- Obliquaria_reflexa    
  |                         
  +-- Theliderma_cylindrica 
  |                         
  +-- Quadrula_quadrula     
  |                         
  +-- Uniomerus_tetralasmus 

Rosenberg et al., 1997, fig. 2A

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 17 0 2 20 1 1 30.0
  +----- Anodonta              
  |                            
  |  +-- Gonidea_angulata      
  |  |                         
  |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **     
  |  |                         
  |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **
  |  |                         
  |  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta **   
--+  |                         
  |  +-- Lampsilis_straminea   
  |  |                         
  |  +-- Lampsilis_teres       
  |  |                         
  |  +-- Megalonaias_nervosa   
  |  |                         
  |  +-- Obliquaria_reflexa    
  |  |                         
  +--+-- Theliderma_cylindrica 
     |                         
     +-- Quadrula_quadrula     
     |                         
     +-- Uniomerus_tetralasmus 
     |                         
     +-- Amblema_plicata       
     |                         
     +-- Elliptio_complanata   
     |                         
     +-- Fusconaia_cerina      
     |                         
     +-- Plectomerus_dombeyanus
     |                         
     +-- Pleurobema_cordatum   
     |                         
     +-- Unio_pictorum         

Rosenberg et al., 1997, fig. 2B

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 17 0 2 20 1 1 30.0
  +----- Anodonta              
  |                            
  |  +-- Gonidea_angulata      
  |  |                         
  |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **     
  |  |                         
  |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **
  |  |                         
  |  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta **   
--+  |                         
  |  +-- Lampsilis_straminea   
  |  |                         
  |  +-- Lampsilis_teres       
  |  |                         
  |  +-- Megalonaias_nervosa   
  |  |                         
  |  +-- Obliquaria_reflexa    
  |  |                         
  +--+-- Theliderma_cylindrica 
     |                         
     +-- Quadrula_quadrula     
     |                         
     +-- Uniomerus_tetralasmus 
     |                         
     +-- Amblema_plicata       
     |                         
     +-- Elliptio_complanata   
     |                         
     +-- Fusconaia_cerina      
     |                         
     +-- Plectomerus_dombeyanus
     |                         
     +-- Aculamprotula_tortuosa
     |                         
     +-- Unio_pictorum         

Moyer & Díaz-Ferguson, 2012, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 3 1 1 4 0 0 18.0
  +----- Lasmigona_costata **   
--+                          
  |  +-- Lasmigona_compressa ** 
  +--+                       
     +-- Lasmigona_subviridis **

Pfeiffer & Graf, 2013, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 3 1 3 32 2 1 16.0
        +-- Cristaria_plicata   
  +-----+                       
  |     +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana
--+                             
  |  +----- Strophitus_undulatus **
  +--+                          
     |  +-- Lasmigona_compressa ** 
     +--+                       
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **   

Wu et al., 2016, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 3 1 2 18 4 2 15.0
  +----------- Cristaria_plicata       
--+                                    
  |  +-------- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                                 
     |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
     +--+                              
        |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
        +--+                           
           +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Krebs et al., 2019, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 3 1 1 0 0 0 17.0
  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **  
--+                         
  |  +-- Pyganodon_fragilis ** 
  +--+                      
     +-- Pyganodon_cataracta **

Wu et al., 2018, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 3 1 2 19 4 2 15.0
  +----------- Cristaria_plicata       
--+                                    
  |  +-------- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                                 
     |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
     +--+                              
        |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
        +--+                           
           +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Wu et al., 2020, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 3 1 2 27 4 2 15.0
        +----- Cristaria_plicata       
  +-----+                              
  |     |  +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
  |     +--+                           
--+        +-- Anemina_arcaeformis     
  |                                    
  |  +-------- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                                 
     |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **       
     +--+                              
        |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
        +--+                           
           +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Bogan & Hoeh, 2000, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 32 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta_cygnea     
--+                          
  |  +-- Strophitus_undulatus **
  +--+                       
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **   

Graf, 2002, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 16 0 0 --
  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata **
--+                        
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **    

Hoeh et al., 2001, fig. 14.2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 3 0 2 29 1 1 15.0
  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **   
--+                          
  |  +-- Anodonta_cygnea     
  +--+                       
     +-- Strophitus_undulatus **

Hoeh et al., 2001, fig. 14.4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 29 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta_cygnea     
--+                          
  |  +-- Strophitus_undulatus **
  +--+                       
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **   

Hoeh et al., 2002, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 29 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta_cygnea     
--+                          
  |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **   
  +--+                       
     +-- Strophitus_undulatus **

Roe & Hoeh, 2003, fig. 4.2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 3 0 2 29 1 1 15.0
  +----- Pyganodon_grandis **   
--+                          
  |  +-- Anodonta_cygnea     
  +--+                       
     +-- Strophitus_undulatus **

Roe & Hoeh, 2003, fig. 4.3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 29 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta_cygnea     
--+                          
  |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **   
  +--+                       
     +-- Strophitus_undulatus **

Walker et al., 2006, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 13 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta          
--+                        
  |  +-- Pyganodon_fragilis **
  +--+                     
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis ** 

Walker et al., 2006, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 13 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta          
--+                        
  |  +-- Pyganodon_fragilis **
  +--+                     
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis ** 

Walker et al., 2006, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 13 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta          
--+                        
  |  +-- Pyganodon_fragilis **
  +--+                     
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis ** 

Walker et al., 2006, fig. 6

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 36 0 0 --
  +-- Pyganodon_fragilis **
--+                     
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis ** 

Walker et al., 2006, fig. 6-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 13 0 0 --
  +-- Pyganodon_fragilis **
--+                     
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis ** 

Manendo et al., 2008, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 11 3 1 --
        +-- Anodonta_cygnea         
  +-----+                           
  |     +-- Anodonta_anatina        
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pseudanodonta_complanata
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Lasmigona_subviridis **    
     +--+                           
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Hoeh et al., 2002, fig. 1-F

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 7 0 0 --
  +-- Pyganodon_fragilis **
--+                     
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis ** 

Hoeh et al., 2002, fig. 1-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 7 0 0 --
  +-- Pyganodon_fragilis **
--+                     
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis ** 

Curole & Kocher, 2005, fig. 1-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 10 0 0 --
  +-- Utterbackiana_implicata **
--+                          
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **      

Krebs, 2004, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 3 0 0 --
  +-- Lasmigona_costata **
--+                    
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **

Krebs, 2004, fig. 2-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 2 0 0 --
  +-- Lasmigona_costata **
--+                    
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **

Hoeh et al., 1996, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 3 0 0 --
  +-- Pyganodon_fragilis **
--+                     
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis ** 

Whelan et al., 2011, fig. 1 ML

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 34 0 0 --
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **  
--+                      
  +-- Lasmigona_compressa **

Whelan et al., 2011, fig. 1 MP

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 34 0 0 --
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **  
--+                      
  +-- Lasmigona_compressa **

Pfeiffer & Graf, 2015, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 38 0 0 --
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **
--+                    
  +-- Lasmigona_costata **

Huang et al., 2013, fig. 3-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 4 0 0 --
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       
--+                           
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Froufe et al., 2015, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 10 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
--+                              
  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  +--+                           
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Froufe et al., 2015, fig. 1-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 6 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
--+                              
  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  +--+                           
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Soroka & Burzynski, 2018, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 5 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
--+                              
  |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       
  +--+                           
     +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Soroka & Burzynski, 2018, fig. 3-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 5 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
--+                              
  |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       
  +--+                           
     +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Guerra et al., 2017, fig. 2a-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 6 0 0 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Guerra et al., 2017, fig. 2b-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 6 0 0 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Burzynski et al., 2017, fig. 1 bottom

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 11 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
--+                              
  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  +--+                           
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Burzynski et al., 2017, fig. 1 top

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 11 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
--+                              
  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  +--+                           
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Fonseca et al., 2016, fig. 1-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 7 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
--+                              
  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  +--+                           
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Araujo et al., 2018, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 17 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta_anatina 
--+                       
  |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **
  +--+                    
     +-- Alasmidonta **      

Amaro et al., 2017, fig. 3A-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 5 0 0 --
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       
--+                           
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Amaro et al., 2017, fig. 3B-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 5 0 0 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Lopes-Lima et al., 2017, fig. 2-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 8 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
--+                              
  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  +--+                           
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Wen et al., 2017, fig. 3-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 4 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
--+                              
  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  +--+                           
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Feng et al., 2016, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 13 0 2 13 5 2 25.0
                 +-- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--------------+                           
  |              +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  |                                          
  |              +-- Sinosolenaia_carinata   
  |        +-----+                           
--+        |     +-- Sinosolenaia_oleivora   
  |  +-----+                                 
  |  |     |  +----- Quadrula_quadrula       
  |  |     +--+                              
  |  |        |  +-- Potamilus_leptodon      
  +--+        +--+                           
     |           +-- Lampsilis_ornata        
     |                                       
     |  +----------- Arcuneopsis_pisciculus  
     |  |                                    
     +--+  +-------- Pyganodon_grandis **       
        |  |                                 
        +--+     +-- Anemina_arcaeformis     
           |  +--+                           
           |  |  +-- Anemina_euscaphys       
           +--+                              
              |  +-- Sinanodonta_lucida      
              +--+                           
                 +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    

Huang et al., 2018, fig. 6-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 15 2 2 --
  +-------- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Huang et al., 2019, fig. 3-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 21 2 2 --
  +-------- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Wang et al., 2018, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 30 6 2 --
        +----- Anodonta_anatina    
  +-----+                          
  |     |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **   
  |     +--+                       
--+        +-- Lasmigona_compressa ** 
  |                                
  |  +-------- Cristaria_plicata   
  |  |                             
  +--+     +-- Anemina_euscaphys   
     |  +--+                       
     |  |  +-- Anemina_arcaeformis 
     +--+                          
        |  +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana
        +--+                       
           +-- Sinanodonta_lucida  

Chase et al., 2018, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 9 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
--+                              
  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  +--+                           
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Chase et al., 2018, fig. 1-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 9 1 1 --
  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
--+                              
  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  +--+                           
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Burzynski & Soroka, 2018, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 2 2 2 --
  +-------- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Burzynski & Soroka, 2018, fig. 5a

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 18 2 2 --
  +----- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
  |                              
--+----- Anodonta_anatina        
  |                              
  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  +--+                           
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Burzynski & Soroka, 2018, fig. 5b

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 8 2 2 --
  +-------- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Wang et al., 2018, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 30 6 2 --
        +----- Anodonta_anatina    
  +-----+                          
  |     |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **   
  |     +--+                       
--+        +-- Lasmigona_compressa ** 
  |                                
  |  +-------- Cristaria_plicata   
  |  |                             
  +--+     +-- Anemina_euscaphys   
     |  +--+                       
     |  |  +-- Anemina_arcaeformis 
     +--+                          
        |  +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana
        +--+                       
           +-- Sinanodonta_lucida  

Froufe et al., 2019, fig. 3-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 17 2 2 --
  +-------- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Froufe et al., 2019, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 17 2 2 --
  +-------- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Guerra et al., 2019, fig. 1-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 20 2 2 --
  +-------- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Guerra et al., 2019, fig. 2-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 20 2 2 --
     +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  +--+                           
  |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       
--+                              
  |  +-- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                           
     +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana    

Zieritz et al., 2021, fig. 3-M, 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 21 2 2 --
  +-------- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Wu et al., 2022, fig. 2e

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 15 2 2 --
  +-------- Sinanodonta_woodiana    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Anodonta_anatina        
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       

Graf, 2000, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 17 0 0 --
-- Pyganodon

Graf & Ó Foighil, 2000, fig. 1, 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 11 0 0 --
-- Pyganodon_grandis

Zanatta & Murphy, 2006, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 56 0 0 --
-- Pyganodon_grandis

Zanatta & Murphy, 2006, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 57 0 0 --
-- Pyganodon_grandis

Curole & Kocher, 2005, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 10 0 0 --
-- Pyganodon_grandis

Curole & Kocher, 2002, fig. 1a-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 3 0 0 --
-- Utterbackiana_implicata

Curole & Kocher, 2002, fig. 1b-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 3 0 0 --
-- Utterbackiana_implicata

Turner et al., 2000, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 15 0 0 --
-- Utterbackiana_couperiana

Campbell, 2000, fig. 1-5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 2 0 0 --
-- Utterbackia_imbecillis

Mulvey et al., 1997, fig. 1, 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 4 0 0 --
-- Utterbackia_imbecillis

Inoue et al., 2013, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 16 0 0 --
-- Pyganodon_grandis

Zanatta & Harris, 2013, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 4 0 0 --
-- Pyganodon_grandis

Inoue et al., 2013, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 8 0 0 --
-- Pyganodon_grandis

Marshall et al., 2014, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 13 0 0 --
-- Pyganodon_grandis

Chen et al., 2012, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 6 1 1 --
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **
--+                    
  +-- Cristaria_plicata

Xue et al., 2016, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 15 5 1 --
        +-- Cristaria_plicata   
  +-----+                       
  |     +-- Lasmigona_compressa ** 
  |                             
--+     +-- Anemina_arcaeformis 
  |  +--+                       
  |  |  +-- Anemina_euscaphys   
  +--+                          
     |  +-- Sinanodonta_lucida  
     +--+                       
        +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana

Pfeiffer et al., 2016, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 37 0 0 --
-- Utterbackiana_suborbiculata

Wei et al., 2016, fig. 0

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 5 1 1 --
-- Pyganodon_grandis

Plazzi et al., 2011, fig. 5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 17 4 2 --
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **       
--+                           
  +-- Pseudanodonta_complanata

Soroka, 2008, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 3 2 2 --
  +----- Sinanodonta_woodiana
--+                          
  |  +-- Anodonta_anatina    
  +--+                       
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **   

Soroka, 2008, fig. 1-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 3 2 2 --
  +----- Sinanodonta_woodiana
--+                          
  |  +-- Anodonta_anatina    
  +--+                       
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **   

Sheng et al., 2014, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 7 1 1 --
-- Pyganodon_grandis

Chase et al., 2018, fig. 5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 9 1 1 --
  +-- Anodonta_anatina        
--+                           
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Pieri et al., 2018, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 36 0 0 --
-- Arcidens_confragosus

Lopes-Lima et al., 2019, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 27 1 1 --
  +-- Anodonta_nuttalliana
--+                       
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **   

Lopes-Lima et al., 2019, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 28 1 1 --
  +-- Anodonta_nuttalliana
--+                       
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **   

Lopes-Lima et al., 2019, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 25 1 1 --
  +-- Anodonta_nuttalliana
--+                       
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis **   

Pfeiffer et al., 2019, fig. 4-5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 56 3 2 --
     +-- Cristaria_plicata   
  +--+                       
  |  +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana
--+                          
  |  +-- Anodonta_cygnea     
  +--+                       
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **   

Pfeiffer et al., 2019, fig. 6

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 56 3 2 --
     +-- Cristaria_plicata   
  +--+                       
  |  +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana
--+                          
  |  +-- Anodonta_cygnea     
  +--+                       
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis **   

Inoue et al., 2020, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 43 0 0 --
-- Arcidens_confragosus

Inoue et al., 2020, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 42 0 0 --
-- Arcidens_confragosus

Metzger et al., 2018, fig. 1C

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 2 0 0 --
-- Lasmigona_costata

Hewitt et al., 2019, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 15 0 0 --
-- Pyganodon_grandis

Pavan-Kumar et al., 2022, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 35 4 2 --
        +-- Anodonta_anatina  
  +-----+                     
  |     +-- Pyganodon_grandis ** 
--+                           
  |  +----- Cristaria_plicata 
  +--+                        
     |  +-- Sinanodonta_lucida
     +--+                     
        +-- Anemina_euscaphys 

Pavan-Kumar et al., 2022, fig. S5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 38 6 2 --
           +-- Anodonta_anatina    
  +--------+                       
  |        +-- Pyganodon_grandis **   
--+                                
  |  +-------- Cristaria_plicata   
  |  |                             
  +--+     +-- Anemina_arcaeformis 
     |  +--+                       
     |  |  +-- Anemina_euscaphys   
     +--+                          
        |  +-- Sinanodonta_lucida  
        +--+                       
           +-- Sinanodonta_woodiana

Page updated: 08:55:57 Wed 18 Jan 2023

 
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