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Page last updated
Fri 02 Dec 2022

The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves)

FM(U)otW(aolcb) is the web version of the MUSSEL Project Database. Follow the links to browse the data or use the custom Google search field. Either way, you win!

Cladomics pages are experimental — even more so than the rest of this site!

The purpose of the cladomics pages for each genus and family-group level taxon is to provide statistics and references indicating the extent to which published phylogenetic work supports the classification used here.

The Cladomics Summary provides an overview of the number of studies that have included terminal species representing this taxon as well as an indication of how frequently it has been recovered as monophyletic.

Following the summary, the available published clades representing the taxon are listed.

For more information, visit the Cladomics FARQ (frequently asked rhetorical questions) page. Abbreviations for the various statistics are explained on the FARQ!

Search the database pages:

Bivalvia | Unionoida | Unionoidea | Unionidae | Ambleminae

tribe POPENAIADINI Heard & Guckert, 1970: cladomics
     9 genera

Cladomics Summary

number of species = 59
number of subtaxa (rank: genus) = 9

analyzed in 25 cladograms in 16 publications
maximum number of terminal species in an analysis = 12, mean = 2.4
maximum number of subtaxa (genus) in an analysis = 3, mean = 1.4

Basic Monophyly

number of cladograms that test basic monophyly (i.e., more than 1 included species) = 7
maximum number of included species = 12, mean = 6.0
maximum number of subtaxa (genus) = 3, mean = 2.43
proportion of cladograms that support basic monophyly = 0.57

Rigorous Monophyly

number of cladograms that test rigorous monophyly = 7
(Rigorous monophyly refers to cladograms with terminal species representing more than one subtaxon (genus) taxon and at least one rigorous outgroup (tribe).
maximum number of included species = 12, mean = 6.0
maximum number of subtaxa (genus) = 3, mean = 2.43
proportion of cladograms that support rigorous monophyly = 0.57


Pfeiffer et al., 2019, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
11 23 17 3 28 27 4 0.0

*** Top Monophyly Cladogram ***

                    +-------------- Elliptoideus_sloatianus    
  +-----------------+                                          
  |                 |  +----------- Elliptio_fumata            
  |                 +--+                                       
  |                    |  +-------- Pleuronaia_barnesiana      
  |                    +--+                                    
  |                       |  +----- Pleurobema_riddellii       
  |                       +--+                                 
  |                          |  +-- Fusconaia_flava            
  |                          +--+                              
  |                             +-- Pleurobema_strodeanum      
  |                                                            
--+                             +-- Amblema_plicata            
  |                          +--+                              
  |                          |  +-- Amblema_neislerii          
  |  +-----------------------+                                 
  |  |                       |  +-- Reginaia_ebenus            
  |  |                       +--+                              
  |  |                          +-- Reginaia_rotulata          
  |  |                                                         
  |  |           +----------------- Popenaias_popeii **           
  |  |           |                                             
  |  |  +--------+  +-------------- Psoronaias_guatemalensis[2] **
  |  |  |        |  |                                          
  +--+  |        +--+  +----------- Psoronaias_guatemalensis[1] **
     |  |           |  |                                       
     |  |           +--+  +-------- Psoronaias_semigranosa[3] **  
     |  |              |  |                                    
     |  |              |  |  +----- Psoronaias_semigranosa[2] **  
     |  |              +--+  |                                 
     |  |                 |  +----- Psoronaias_usumasintae[2] **  
     |  |                 |  |                                 
     |  |                 +--+----- Psoronaias_percompressa **    
     +--+                    |                                 
        |                    |  +-- Psoronaias_semigranosa[1] **  
        |                    |  |                              
        |                    +--+-- Psoronaias_profunda **        
        |                       |                              
        |                       +-- Psoronaias_usumasintae[1] **  
        |                                                      
        |                       +-- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis    
        |  +--------------------+                              
        |  |                    +-- Glebula_rotundata          
        |  |                                                   
        +--+  +-------------------- Potamilus_alatus           
           |  |                                                
           |  |                 +-- Truncilla_truncata         
           +--+  +--------------+                              
              |  |              +-- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
              |  |                                             
              +--+  +-------------- Pachynaias_spheniopsis     
                 |  |                                          
                 |  |           +-- Cyrtonaias_explicata       
                 +--+  +--------+                              
                    |  |        +-- Sphenonaias_microdon **       
                    |  |                                       
                    +--+        +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
                       |  +-----+                              
                       |  |     +-- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
                       +--+                                    
                          |  +----- Cambarunio_iris            
                          +--+                                 
                             |  +-- Epioblasma_triquetra       
                             +--+                              
                                +-- Ligumia_recta              

Inoue et al., 2018, fig. 1, 3a-c

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 203 180 4 --

*** Top Sister-Group Cladogram ***

                                               +-- Reginaia_ebenus          
  +--------------------------------------------+                            
  |                                            +-- Reginaia_rotulata        
  |                                                                         
  |                                            +-- Amblema_plicata          
  +--------------------------------------------+                            
  |                                            +-- Amblema_elliottii        
  |                                                                         
  |                                         +----- Popenaias_popeii **         
  |                                         |                               
  |                                         |  +-- Dromus_dromas            
  |                                         |  |                            
  |                                         |  +-- Epioblasma_rangiana      
  |                                         |  |                            
  +-----------------------------------------+  +-- Glebula_rotundata        
  |                                         |  |                            
  |                                         |  +-- Lampsilis_ovata          
  |                                         |  |                            
  |                                         |  +-- Lampsilis_virescens      
  |                                         |  |                            
  |                                         |  +-- Lemiox_rimosus           
  |                                         +--+                            
  |                                            +-- Obliquaria_reflexa       
  |                                            |                            
  |                                            +-- Obovaria_olivaria        
  |                                            |                            
--+                                            +-- Obovaria_unicolor        
  |                                            |                            
  |                                            +-- Plectomerus_dombeyanus   
  |                                            |                            
  |                                            +-- Potamilus_alatus         
  |                                            |                            
  |                                            +-- Potamilus_capax          
  |                                                                         
  |                                            +-- Uniomerus_declivis       
  |                                         +--+                            
  |                                         |  +-- Uniomerus_tetralasmus    
  |                                         |                               
  |                                         |  +-- Cyclonaias_tuberculata   
  |  +--------------------------------------+  |                            
  |  |                                      |  +-- Cyclonaias_pustulosa[1]  
  |  |                                      |  |                            
  |  |                                      |  +-- Theliderma_metanevra     
  |  |                                      +--+                            
  |  |                                         +-- Cyclonaias_pustulosa[2]  
  |  |                                         |                            
  |  |                                         +-- Quadrula_quadrula        
  |  |                                         |                            
  |  |                                         +-- Tritogonia_verrucosa     
  |  |                                                                      
  |  |  +----------------------------------------- Elliptoideus_sloatianus  
  +--+  |                                                                   
     |  |                                      +-- Elliptio_lanceolata      
     |  |  +-----------------------------------+                            
     |  |  |                                   +-- Parvaspina_collina       
     |  |  |                                                                
     |  |  |  +----------------------------------- Plethobasus_cyphyus      
     |  |  |  |                                                             
     |  |  |  +----------------------------------- Eurynia_dilatata         
     |  |  |  |                                                             
     |  |  |  +----------------------------------- Hemistena_lata           
     |  |  |  |                                                             
     |  |  |  |                                +-- Elliptio_complanata      
     +--+  |  |                                |                            
        |  |  |                                +-- Elliptio_hopetonensis    
        |  |  |                                |                            
        |  |  |                                +-- Elliptio_producta[1]     
        |  |  |                                |                            
        |  |  |                                +-- Elliptio_shepardiana     
        |  |  |                                |                            
        |  |  |                                +-- Elliptio_angustata       
        |  |  |                                |                            
        |  |  |                                +-- Elliptio_arca            
        |  |  |                                |                            
        |  |  |                                +-- Elliptio_arctata         
        |  |  |                                |                            
        +--+  |                                +-- Elliptio_jayensis        
           |  |                                |                            
           |  |                                +-- Elliptio_crassidens      
           |  |                                |                            
           |  +--------------------------------+-- Elliptio_dariensis       
           |  |                                |                            
           |  |                                +-- Elliptio_fisheriana      
           |  |                                |                            
           |  |                                +-- Elliptio_folliculata     
           |  |                                |                            
           |  |                                +-- Elliptio_fumata          
           |  |                                |                            
           |  |                                +-- Elliptio_icterina        
           |  |                                |                            
           |  |                                +-- Elliptio_mcmichaeli      
           |  |                                |                            
           |  |                                +-- Elliptio_producta[2]     
           |  |                                |                            
           |  |                                +-- Elliptio_pullata         
           |  |                                |                            
           |  |                                +-- Elliptio_purpurella      
           |  |                                |                            
           |  |                                +-- Elliptio_congaraea       
           |  |                                                             
           +--+                                +-- Pleuronaia_barnesiana    
              |                                |                            
              |  +-----------------------------+-- Pleuronaia_dolabelloides 
              |  |                             |                            
              |  |                             +-- Pleuronaia_gibber        
              |  |                                                          
              |  |     +-------------------------- Pleurobema_plenum        
              |  |     |                                                    
              |  |     |  +----------------------- Pleurobema_stabile       
              |  |     |  |                                                 
              |  |     |  |                 +----- Pleurobema_pyriforme     
              |  |  +--+  |              +--+                               
              |  |  |  |  |              |  |  +-- Pleurobema_georgianum[2] 
              |  |  |  |  |              |  +--+                            
              |  |  |  |  |  +-----------+     +-- Pleurobema_athearni      
              |  |  |  |  |  |           |                                  
              |  |  |  +--+  |           |  +----- Pleurobema_decisum       
              |  |  |     |  |           |  |                               
              |  |  |     |  |           +--+  +-- Pleurobema_georgianum[1] 
              |  |  |     |  |              |  |                            
              |  |  |     |  |              +--+-- Pleurobema_hanleyianum[1]
              |  |  |     |  |                 |                            
              |  |  |     |  |                 +-- Pleurobema_hanleyianum[2]
              |  |  |     |  |                                              
              |  |  |     +--+     +-------------- Pleurobema_beadleianum[2]
              |  |  |        |     |                                        
              |  |  |        |  +--+  +----------- Pleurobema_strodeanum[2] 
              |  |  |        |  |  |  |                                     
              |  |  |        |  |  +--+----------- Pleurobema_rubellum      
              |  |  |        |  |     |                                     
              |  |  |        |  |     |  +-------- Pleurobema_beadleianum[1]
              |  |  |        |  |     +--+                                  
              |  |  |        |  |        |  +----- Pleurobema_taitianum     
              |  |  |        |  |        +--+                               
              |  |  |        |  |           |  +-- Pleurobema_perovatum     
              |  |  |        +--+           +--+                            
              |  |  |           |              +-- Pleurobema_strodeanum[1] 
              |  |  |           |                                           
              |  |  |           |           +----- Pleurobema_oviforme[6]   
              |  |  |           |           |                               
              |  |  |           |        +--+----- Pleurobema_clava[3]      
              |  |  |           |        |  |                               
              |  |  |           |        |  |  +-- Pleurobema_oviforme[5]   
              |  |  |           |        |  +--+                            
              +--+  |           +--------+     +-- Pleurobema_clava[2]      
                 |  |                    |                                  
                 |  |                    |  +----- Pleurobema_oviforme[2]   
                 |  |                    |  |                               
                 |  |                    |  +----- Pleurobema_oviforme[3]   
                 |  |                    +--+                               
                 |  |                       +----- Pleurobema_oviforme[4]   
                 |  |                       |                               
                 |  |                       |  +-- Pleurobema_clava[1]      
                 |  |                       +--+                            
                 |  |                          +-- Pleurobema_oviforme[1]   
                 |  |                                                       
                 |  |  +-------------------------- Pleurobema_cordatum      
                 |  |  |                                                    
                 |  |  |                    +----- Fusconaia_subrotunda     
                 |  |  |  +-----------------+                               
                 |  +--+  |                 |  +-- Fusconaia_cor            
                 |  |  |  |                 +--+                            
                 |  |  |  |                    +-- Fusconaia_cuneolus       
                 |  |  |  |                                                 
                 |  |  |  |  +-------------------- Fusconaia_ozarkensis     
                 |  |  +--+  |                                              
                 |  |     |  |                 +-- Fusconaia_escambia       
                 |  |     |  |  +--------------+                            
                 |  |     |  |  |              +-- Fusconaia_burkei         
                 |  |     |  |  |                                           
                 |  |     |  |  |           +----- Fusconaia_mitchelli      
                 |  |     +--+  |           |                               
                 |  |        |  |           +----- Fusconaia_flava[27]      
                 |  |        |  |           |                               
                 |  |        |  +-----------+  +-- Fusconaia_askewi[1]      
                 |  |        |  |           |  |                            
                 |  |        |  |           |  +-- Fusconaia_askewi[2]      
                 |  |        |  |           |  |                            
                 |  |        |  |           |  +-- Fusconaia_askewi[3]      
                 |  |        +--+           +--+                            
                 |  |           |              +-- Fusconaia_askewi[4]      
                 |  |           |              |                            
                 |  |           |              +-- Fusconaia_askewi[5]      
                 |  |           |              |                            
                 |  |           |              +-- Fusconaia_chunii         
                 |  |           |                                           
                 |  |           |  +-------------- Fusconaia_masoni         
                 +--+           |  |                                        
                    |           |  |  +----------- Fusconaia_flava[26]      
                    |           |  |  |                                     
                    |           |  |  |        +-- Fusconaia_cerina[8]      
                    |           +--+  |  +-----+                            
                    |              |  |  |     +-- Fusconaia_flava[25]      
                    |              |  |  |                                  
                    |              |  |  |  +----- Fusconaia_flava[5]       
                    |              |  |  |  |                               
                    |              |  |  |  +----- Fusconaia_flava[6]       
                    |              +--+  |  |                               
                    |                 |  |  +----- Fusconaia_flava[7]       
                    |                 |  |  |                               
                    |                 |  |  +----- Fusconaia_flava[8]       
                    |                 |  |  |                               
                    |                 |  |  +----- Fusconaia_cerina[4]      
                    |                 |  |  |                               
                    |                 |  |  +----- Fusconaia_flava[9]       
                    |                 |  |  |                               
                    |                 +--+  +----- Fusconaia_flava[10]      
                    |                    |  |                               
                    |                    |  +----- Fusconaia_flava[11]      
                    |                    |  |                               
                    |                    |  +----- Fusconaia_flava[12]      
                    |                    |  |                               
                    |                    |  +----- Fusconaia_flava[13]      
                    |                    |  |                               
                    |                    |  +----- Fusconaia_flava[14]      
                    |                    |  |                               
                    |                    |  +----- Fusconaia_flava[15]      
                    |                    |  |                               
                    |                    |  +----- Fusconaia_flava[16]      
                    |                    |  |                               
                    |                    |  +----- Fusconaia_flava[17]      
                    |                    +--+                               
                    |                       +----- Fusconaia_flava[18]      
                    |                       |                               
                    |                       +----- Fusconaia_flava[19]      
                    |                       |                               
                    |                       +----- Fusconaia_flava[20]      
                    |                       |                               
                    |                       +----- Fusconaia_flava[21]      
                    |                       |                               
                    |                       +----- Fusconaia_flava[22]      
                    |                       |                               
                    |                       +----- Fusconaia_flava[23]      
                    |                       |                               
                    |                       +----- Fusconaia_flava[24]      
                    |                       |                               
                    |                       +----- Fusconaia_cerina[5]      
                    |                       |                               
                    |                       +----- Fusconaia_cerina[6]      
                    |                       |                               
                    |                       +----- Fusconaia_cerina[7]      
                    |                       |                               
                    |                       |  +-- Fusconaia_flava[1]       
                    |                       |  |                            
                    |                       |  +-- Fusconaia_flava[2]       
                    |                       |  |                            
                    |                       |  +-- Fusconaia_flava[3]       
                    |                       |  |                            
                    |                       +--+-- Fusconaia_flava[4]       
                    |                          |                            
                    |                          +-- Fusconaia_cerina[1]      
                    |                          |                            
                    |                          +-- Fusconaia_cerina[2]      
                    |                          |                            
                    |                          +-- Fusconaia_cerina[3]      
                    |                                                       
                    |           +----------------- Pleurobema_riddellii     
                    |           |                                           
                    |           |  +-------------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[21]  
                    |           |  |                                        
                    |           |  |  +----------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[19]  
                    |           |  |  |                                     
                    |           |  |  +----------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[20]  
                    |           |  |  |                                     
                    +-----------+  |  |     +----- Pleurobema_sintoxia[18]  
                                |  |  |     |                               
                                |  |  |     +----- Pleurobema_rubrum[19]    
                                |  |  |     |                               
                                |  |  |     +----- Pleurobema_rubrum[20]    
                                |  |  +-----+                               
                                |  |  |     +----- Pleurobema_rubrum[21]    
                                |  |  |     |                               
                                |  |  |     |  +-- Pleurobema_rubrum[17]    
                                +--+  |     |  |                            
                                   |  |     |  +-- Pleurobema_sintoxia[16]  
                                   |  |     +--+                            
                                   |  |        +-- Pleurobema_sintoxia[17]  
                                   |  |        |                            
                                   |  |        +-- Pleurobema_rubrum[18]    
                                   |  |                                     
                                   |  |  +-------- Pleurobema[4]            
                                   |  |  |                                  
                                   |  |  +-------- Pleurobema[5]            
                                   |  |  |                                  
                                   |  |  +-------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[1]   
                                   |  |  |                                  
                                   |  |  +-------- Pleurobema[8]            
                                   |  |  |                                  
                                   |  |  +-------- Pleurobema[9]            
                                   +--+  |                                  
                                      |  +-------- Pleurobema[10]           
                                      |  |                                  
                                      |  +-------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[3]   
                                      |  |                                  
                                      |  +-------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[4]   
                                      |  |                                  
                                      |  +-------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[5]   
                                      |  |                                  
                                      |  +-------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[6]   
                                      |  |                                  
                                      |  +-------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[7]   
                                      |  |                                  
                                      |  +-------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[8]   
                                      |  |                                  
                                      |  +-------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[9]   
                                      |  |                                  
                                      |  +-------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[10]  
                                      |  |                                  
                                      |  +-------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[11]  
                                      |  |                                  
                                      |  +-------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[12]  
                                      |  |                                  
                                      |  +-------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[13]  
                                      |  |                                  
                                      |  +-------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[14]  
                                      |  |                                  
                                      |  +-------- Pleurobema_sintoxia[15]  
                                      |  |                                  
                                      +--+-------- Pleurobema_rubrum[4]     
                                         |                                  
                                         +-------- Pleurobema_rubrum[5]     
                                         |                                  
                                         +-------- Pleurobema_rubrum[6]     
                                         |                                  
                                         +-------- Pleurobema_rubrum[7]     
                                         |                                  
                                         +-------- Pleurobema_rubrum[8]     
                                         |                                  
                                         +-------- Pleurobema_rubrum[9]     
                                         |                                  
                                         +-------- Pleurobema_rubrum[10]    
                                         |                                  
                                         +-------- Pleurobema_rubrum[11]    
                                         |                                  
                                         +-------- Pleurobema_rubrum[12]    
                                         |                                  
                                         +-------- Pleurobema_rubrum[13]    
                                         |                                  
                                         +-------- Pleurobema_rubrum[14]    
                                         |                                  
                                         +-------- Pleurobema_rubrum[15]    
                                         |                                  
                                         +-------- Pleurobema_rubrum[16]    
                                         |                                  
                                         |     +-- Pleurobema[6]            
                                         +-----+                            
                                         |     +-- Pleurobema_rubrum[1]     
                                         |                                  
                                         |     +-- Pleurobema_sintoxia[2]   
                                         +-----+                            
                                         |     +-- Pleurobema_rubrum[2]     
                                         |                                  
                                         |     +-- Pleurobema[7]            
                                         +-----+                            
                                         |     +-- Pleurobema_rubrum[3]     
                                         |                                  
                                         |  +----- Pleurobema[3]            
                                         +--+                               
                                            |  +-- Pleurobema[1]            
                                            +--+                            
                                               +-- Pleurobema[2]            

Inoue et al., 2020, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
12 23 20 3 17 17 3 25.0
                                      +-- Reginaia_ebenus            
  +-----------------------------------+                              
  |                                   +-- Reginaia_rotulata          
  |                                                                  
  |                                +----- Amblema_neislerii          
  |  +-----------------------------+                                 
  |  |                             |  +-- Amblema_plicata            
--+  |                             +--+                              
  |  |                                +-- Amblema_elliottii          
  |  |                                                               
  |  |                             +----- Popenaias_popeii **           
  |  |                    +--------+                                 
  |  |                    |        |  +-- Popenaias_berezai **          
  |  |                    |        +--+                              
  +--+                    |           +-- Popenaias_semirasa **         
     |  +-----------------+                                          
     |  |                 |  +----------- Psoronaias_profunda **        
     |  |                 |  |                                       
     |  |                 |  |     +----- Psoronaias_guatemalensis[1] **
     |  |                 +--+  +--+                                 
     |  |                    |  |  |  +-- Psoronaias_semigranosa[1] **  
     |  |                    |  |  +--+                              
     |  |                    +--+     +-- Psoronaias_percompressa **    
     +--+                       |                                    
        |                       |  +----- Psoronaias_semigranosa[3] **  
        |                       +--+                                 
        |                          |  +-- Psoronaias_guatemalensis[2] **
        |                          +--+                              
        |                             +-- Psoronaias_semigranosa[2] **  
        |                                                            
        |  +----------------------------- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis    
        |  |                                                         
        +--+  +-------------------------- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
           |  |                                                      
           +--+  +----------------------- Ligumia_recta              
              |  |                                                   
              +--+  +-------------------- Potamilus_alatus           
                 |  |                                                
                 +--+  +----------------- Pachynaias_spheniopsis     
                    |  |                                             
                    |  |              +-- Epioblasma_triquetra       
                    +--+  +-----------+                              
                       |  |           +-- Truncilla_truncata         
                       |  |                                          
                       +--+           +-- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
                          |  +--------+                              
                          |  |        +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
                          +--+                                       
                             |  +-------- Cambarunio_iris            
                             +--+                                    
                                |  +----- Sphenonaias_microdon[2] **    
                                +--+                                 
                                   |  +-- Cyrtonaias_explicata       
                                   +--+                              
                                      +-- Sphenonaias_microdon[1] **    

Inoue et al., 2020, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
11 23 10 3 18 18 3 12.0
                       +-- Reginaia_ebenus            
  +--------------------+                              
  |                    +-- Reginaia_rotulata          
  |                                                   
  |                 +----- Amblema_plicata            
  |  +--------------+                                 
  |  |              |  +-- Amblema_elliottii          
  |  |              +--+                              
--+  |                 +-- Amblema_neislerii          
  |  |                                                
  |  |              +----- Popenaias_popeii **           
  |  |           +--+                                 
  |  |           |  |  +-- Popenaias_berezai **          
  |  |           |  +--+                              
  |  |           |     +-- Popenaias_semirasa **         
  +--+           |                                    
     |  +--------+     +-- Psoronaias_profunda **        
     |  |        |     |                              
     |  |        |     +-- Psoronaias_semigranosa[1] **  
     |  |        |     |                              
     |  |        |     +-- Psoronaias_semigranosa[2] **  
     |  |        |     |                              
     |  |        +-----+-- Psoronaias_guatemalensis[1] **
     |  |              |                              
     |  |              +-- Psoronaias_guatemalensis[2] **
     +--+              |                              
        |              +-- Psoronaias_percompressa **    
        |              |                              
        |              +-- Psoronaias_semigranosa[3] **  
        |                                             
        |              +-- Glebula_rotundata          
        |  +-----------+                              
        |  |           +-- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis    
        |  |                                          
        +--+  +----------- Potamilus_alatus           
           |  |                                       
           |  |        +-- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
           +--+  +-----+                              
              |  |     +-- Truncilla_truncata         
              |  |                                    
              |  |  +----- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
              +--+  |                                 
                 |  +----- Epioblasma_triquetra       
                 |  |                                 
                 |  +----- Lampsilis_cardium          
                 |  |                                 
                 +--+----- Ligumia_recta              
                    |                                 
                    +----- Cambarunio_iris            
                    |                                 
                    +----- Pachynaias_spheniopsis     
                    |                                 
                    |  +-- Cyrtonaias_explicata       
                    +--+                              
                       +-- Sphenonaias_microdon **       

Pfeiffer et al., 2019, fig. 4-5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 55 13 4 --
              +----- Reginaia_ebenus        
  +-----------+                             
  |           |  +-- Plectomerus_dombeyanus 
  |           +--+                          
  |              +-- Amblema_plicata        
--+                                         
  |              +-- Psoronaias_semigranosa ** 
  |  +-----------+                          
  |  |           +-- Popenaias_popeii **       
  +--+                                      
     |  +----------- Obliquaria_reflexa     
     +--+                                   
        |  +-------- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis
        +--+                                
           |  +----- Leaunio_lienosus       
           +--+                             
              |  +-- Lampsilis_cardium      
              +--+                          
                 +-- Pachynaias_spheniopsis 

Pfeiffer et al., 2019, fig. 6

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 55 13 4 --
              +----- Elliptoideus_sloatianus
           +--+                             
           |  |  +-- Elliptio_complanata    
           |  +--+                          
  +--------+     +-- Pleurobema_strodeanum  
  |        |                                
  |        |  +----- Reginaia_ebenus        
  |        +--+                             
  |           |  +-- Plectomerus_dombeyanus 
--+           +--+                          
  |              +-- Amblema_plicata        
  |                                         
  |              +-- Psoronaias_semigranosa ** 
  |  +-----------+                          
  |  |           +-- Popenaias_popeii **       
  +--+                                      
     |  +----------- Obliquaria_reflexa     
     +--+                                   
        |  +-------- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis
        +--+                                
           |  +----- Leaunio_lienosus       
           +--+                             
              |  +-- Lampsilis_cardium      
              +--+                          
                 +-- Pachynaias_spheniopsis 

Smith et al., 2020, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 26 26 4 --
                             +----- Reginaia_ebenus        
  +--------------------------+                             
  |                          |  +-- Amblema_plicata        
  |                          +--+                          
  |                             +-- Plectomerus_dombeyanus 
--+                                                        
  |                             +-- Popenaias_popeii **       
  |  +--------------------------+                          
  |  |                          +-- Psoronaias_semigranosa ** 
  |  |                                                     
  +--+  +-------------------------- Obliquaria_reflexa     
     |  |                                                  
     |  |  +----------------------- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis
     +--+  |                                               
        |  |                    +-- Pachynaias_spheniopsis 
        |  |  +-----------------+                          
        +--+  |                 +-- Lampsilis_cardium      
           |  |                                            
           |  |        +----------- Ellipsaria_lineolata   
           |  |  +-----+                                   
           +--+  |     |  +-------- Truncilla_truncata     
              |  |     +--+                                
              |  |        |  +----- Truncilla_donaciformis 
              |  |        +--+                             
              |  |           |  +-- Truncilla_cognata      
              |  |           +--+                          
              +--+              +-- Truncilla_macrodon     
                 |                                         
                 |  +-------------- Atlanticoncha_ochracea 
                 |  |                                      
                 |  |           +-- Potamilus_fragilis     
                 |  |     +-----+                          
                 |  |     |     +-- Potamilus_leptodon     
                 +--+  +--+                                
                    |  |  |  +----- Potamilus_metnecktayi  
                    |  |  +--+                             
                    |  |     |  +-- Potamilus_alatus       
                    |  |     +--+                          
                    +--+        +-- Potamilus_purpuratus   
                       |                                   
                       |        +-- Potamilus_capax        
                       |  +-----+                          
                       |  |     +-- Potamilus_inflatus     
                       +--+                                
                          |  +----- Potamilus_ohiensis     
                          +--+                             
                             |  +-- Potamilus_streckersoni 
                             +--+                          
                                +-- Potamilus_amphichaenus 

Smith et al., 2020, fig. 2-3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 26 26 4 --
                                +----- Reginaia_ebenus        
  +-----------------------------+                             
  |                             |  +-- Amblema_plicata        
  |                             +--+                          
  |                                +-- Plectomerus_dombeyanus 
--+                                                           
  |                                +-- Popenaias_popeii **       
  |  +-----------------------------+                          
  |  |                             +-- Psoronaias_semigranosa ** 
  |  |                                                        
  +--+  +----------------------------- Obliquaria_reflexa     
     |  |                                                     
     |  |  +-------------------------- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis
     +--+  |                                                  
        |  |                       +-- Pachynaias_spheniopsis 
        |  |  +--------------------+                          
        +--+  |                    +-- Lampsilis_cardium      
           |  |                                               
           |  |           +----------- Ellipsaria_lineolata   
           |  |  +--------+                                   
           +--+  |        |  +-------- Truncilla_truncata     
              |  |        +--+                                
              |  |           |  +----- Truncilla_donaciformis 
              |  |           +--+                             
              |  |              |  +-- Truncilla_cognata      
              +--+              +--+                          
                 |                 +-- Truncilla_macrodon     
                 |                                            
                 |  +----------------- Atlanticoncha_ochracea 
                 |  |                                         
                 |  |              +-- Potamilus_capax        
                 +--+  +-----------+                          
                    |  |           +-- Potamilus_inflatus     
                    |  |                                      
                    |  |        +----- Potamilus_ohiensis     
                    +--+  +-----+                             
                       |  |     |  +-- Potamilus_streckersoni 
                       |  |     +--+                          
                       |  |        +-- Potamilus_amphichaenus 
                       +--+                                   
                          |        +-- Potamilus_fragilis     
                          |  +-----+                          
                          |  |     +-- Potamilus_leptodon     
                          +--+                                
                             |  +----- Potamilus_metnecktayi  
                             +--+                             
                                |  +-- Potamilus_alatus       
                                +--+                          
                                   +-- Potamilus_purpuratus   

Campbell et al., 2005, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 116 104 4 --
                                +----- Popenaias_popeii **           
  +-----------------------------+                                 
  |                             |  +-- Amblema_elliottii          
  |                             +--+                              
  |                                +-- Amblema_plicata            
  |                                                               
  |                                +-- Toxolasma_parvum           
  |                          +-----+                              
  |                          |     +-- Toxolasma_texasiense       
  |  +-----------------------+                                    
  |  |                       |  +----- Obliquaria_reflexa         
--+  |                       +--+                                 
  |  |                          |  +-- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis    
  |  |                          +--+                              
  |  |                             +-- Glebula_rotundata          
  |  |                                                            
  |  |                             +-- Potamilus_fragilis         
  |  |                          +--+                              
  |  |                          |  +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
  |  |              +-----------+                                 
  |  |              |           |  +-- Potamilus_alatus           
  |  |              |           +--+                              
  +--+              |              +-- Potamilus_purpuratus       
     |              |                                             
     |  +-----------+              +-- Sagittunio_nasutus         
     |  |           |           +--+                              
     |  |           |           |  +-- Medionidus_conradicus      
     |  |           |  +--------+                                 
     |  |           |  |        |  +-- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
     |  |           |  |        +--+                              
     |  |           +--+           +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
     |  |              |                                          
     |  |              |  +----------- Medionidus_acutissimus     
     |  |              +--+                                       
     |  |                 |  +-------- Lemiox_rimosus             
     |  |                 +--+                                    
     +--+                    |  +----- Dromus_dromas              
        |                    +--+                                 
        |                       |  +-- Cyprogenia_aberti          
        |                       +--+                              
        |                          +-- Cyprogenia_stegaria        
        |                                                         
        |                          +-- Ellipsaria_lineolata       
        |  +-----------------------+                              
        |  |                       +-- Truncilla_truncata         
        |  |                                                      
        |  |  +----------------------- Villosa_villosa            
        |  |  |                                                   
        |  |  |                    +-- Obovaria_olivaria          
        +--+  |     +--------------+                              
           |  |     |              +-- Venustaconcha_pleasii      
           |  |     |                                             
           |  |  +--+           +----- Obovaria_unicolor          
           |  |  |  |  +--------+                                 
           |  |  |  |  |        |  +-- Obovaria_arkansasensis     
           +--+  |  |  |        +--+                              
              |  |  +--+           +-- Obovaria_subrotunda        
              |  |     |                                          
              |  |     |  +----------- Epioblasma_brevidens       
              |  |     +--+                                       
              |  |        |  +-------- Epioblasma_triquetra       
              |  |        +--+                                    
              |  |           |  +----- Epioblasma_walkeri[2]      
              |  |           +--+                                 
              |  |              |  +-- Epioblasma_capsaeformis    
              +--+              +--+                              
                 |                 +-- Epioblasma_walkeri[1]      
                 |                                                
                 |                 +-- Ligumia_recta              
                 |        +--------+                              
                 |        |        +-- Cambarunio_iris            
                 |     +--+                                       
                 |     |  |  +-------- Lampsilis_teres            
                 |     |  +--+                                    
                 |     |     |  +----- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
                 |     |     +--+                                 
                 |     |        |  +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      
                 |     |        +--+                              
                 |     |           +-- Leaunio_vanuxemensis       
                 +-----+                                          
                       |           +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
                       |        +--+                              
                       |        |  +-- Lampsilis_ovata            
                       |  +-----+                                 
                       |  |     |  +-- Ortmanniana_pectorosa      
                       |  |     +--+                              
                       |  |        +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
                       |  |                                       
                       +--+     +----- Hamiota_australis[2]       
                          |  +--+                                 
                          |  |  |  +-- Hamiota_australis[1]       
                          |  |  +--+                              
                          |  |     +-- Hamiota_subangulata        
                          +--+                                    
                             |  +----- Hamiota_altilis[2]         
                             |  |                                 
                             |  |  +-- Hamiota_altilis[1]         
                             +--+--+                              
                                |  +-- Hamiota_perovalis[1]       
                                |                                 
                                |  +-- Hamiota_altilis[3]         
                                +--+                              
                                   +-- Hamiota_perovalis[2]       

Campbell et al., 2005, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 114 102 4 --
                 +-------- Popenaias_popeii **           
                 |                                    
  +--------------+     +-- Amblema_elliottii          
  |              |  +--+                              
  |              |  |  +-- Amblema_plicata            
  |              +--+                                 
  |                 |  +-- Reginaia_ebenus            
  |                 |  |                              
  |                 +--+-- Reginaia_rotulata[1]       
  |                    |                              
  |                    +-- Reginaia_rotulata[2]       
  |                                                   
  |                 +----- Plectomerus_dombeyanus     
  |  +--------------+                                 
--+  |              |  +-- Toxolasma_parvum           
  |  |              +--+                              
  |  |                 +-- Toxolasma_texasiense       
  |  |                                                
  |  |              +----- Obliquaria_reflexa         
  |  |  +-----------+                                 
  |  |  |           |  +-- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis    
  |  |  |           +--+                              
  |  |  |              +-- Glebula_rotundata          
  |  |  |                                             
  |  |  |  +-------------- Sagittunio_nasutus         
  |  |  |  |                                          
  +--+  |  +-------------- Leaunio_vanuxemensis       
     |  |  |                                          
     |  |  |           +-- Ellipsaria_lineolata       
     |  |  +-----------+                              
     |  |  |           +-- Truncilla_truncata         
     |  |  |                                          
     |  |  |        +----- Lampsilis_teres            
     |  |  +--------+                                 
     |  |  |        |  +-- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
     |  |  |        +--+                              
     |  |  |           +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      
     |  |  |                                          
     |  |  |        +----- Villosa_villosa            
     |  |  +--------+                                 
     +--+  |        |  +-- Ligumia_recta              
        |  |        +--+                              
        |  |           +-- Cambarunio_iris            
        |  |                                          
        |  |     +-------- Ortmanniana_pectorosa      
        |  +-----+                                    
        |  |     |  +----- Lampsilis_ornata           
        |  |     +--+                                 
        |  |        |  +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
        |  |        +--+                              
        |  |           +-- Lampsilis_ovata            
        |  |                                          
        |  |           +-- Potamilus_fragilis         
        |  |        +--+                              
        |  |        |  +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
        |  +--------+                                 
        |  |        |  +-- Potamilus_alatus           
        |  |        +--+                              
        |  |           +-- Potamilus_purpuratus       
        |  |                                          
        |  |           +-- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
        +--+  +--------+                              
           |  |        +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
           |  |                                       
           +--+  +-------- Medionidus_conradicus      
           |  |  |                                    
           |  |  |     +-- Lemiox_rimosus             
           |  +--+-----+                              
           |     |     +-- Medionidus_acutissimus     
           |     |                                    
           |     |  +----- Dromus_dromas              
           |     +--+                                 
           |        |  +-- Cyprogenia_aberti          
           |        +--+                              
           |           +-- Cyprogenia_stegaria        
           |                                          
           |        +----- Hamiota_australis[2]       
           |  +-----+                                 
           |  |     |  +-- Hamiota_australis[1]       
           |  |     +--+                              
           |  |        +-- Hamiota_subangulata        
           +--+                                       
           |  |        +-- Hamiota_altilis[3]         
           |  |  +-----+                              
           |  |  |     +-- Hamiota_perovalis[2]       
           |  +--+                                    
           |     |  +----- Hamiota_altilis[2]         
           |     +--+                                 
           |        |  +-- Hamiota_altilis[1]         
           |        +--+                              
           |           +-- Hamiota_perovalis[1]       
           |                                          
           |  +----------- Obovaria_olivaria          
           |  |                                       
           |  +----------- Venustaconcha_pleasii      
           |  |                                       
           |  |     +----- Obovaria_unicolor          
           |  +-----+                                 
           +--+     |  +-- Obovaria_arkansasensis     
              |     +--+                              
              |        +-- Obovaria_subrotunda        
              |                                       
              |        +-- Epioblasma_brevidens       
              |  +-----+                              
              |  |     +-- Epioblasma_triquetra       
              +--+                                    
                 |  +----- Epioblasma_walkeri[1]      
                 +--+                                 
                    |  +-- Epioblasma_walkeri[2]      
                    +--+                              
                       +-- Epioblasma_capsaeformis    

Chapman et al., 2008, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 20 19 4 --
  +-------------------------------- Plectomerus_dombeyanus     
  |                                                            
--+  +----------------------------- Popenaias_popeii **           
  |  |                                                         
  +--+  +-------------------------- Toxolasma_lividum          
     |  |                                                      
     +--+  +----------------------- Obliquaria_reflexa         
        |  |                                                   
        |  |                    +-- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis    
        +--+  +-----------------+                              
           |  |                 +-- Glebula_rotundata          
           |  |                                                
           +--+                 +-- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
              |  +--------------+                              
              |  |              +-- Lemiox_rimosus             
              |  |                                             
              +--+              +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
                 |  +-----------+                              
                 |  |           +-- Obovaria_olivaria          
                 +--+                                          
                    |  +----------- Hamiota_subangulata        
                    +--+                                       
                       |  +-------- Lampsilis_ovata            
                       +--+                                    
                          |  +----- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
                          +--+                                 
                             |  +-- Lampsilis_straminea        
                             +--+                              
                                +-- Lampsilis_hydiana          

Zanatta & Murphy, 2006, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 56 54 3 --
     +-- Amblema_plicata         
  +--+                           
  |  +-- Popenaias_popeii **        
  |                              
--+  +-- Pleurobema_clava        
  |  |                           
  |  +-- Eurynia_dilatata        
  +--+                           
     +-- Pleuronaia_dolabelloides
     |                           
     +-- Fusconaia_flava         

Zanatta & Murphy, 2006, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 57 55 3 --
                                            +-------- Pleuronaia_dolabelloides   
                                            |                                    
  +-----------------------------------------+-------- Pleurobema_clava           
  |                                         |                                    
  |                                         |  +----- Fusconaia_flava            
  |                                         +--+                                 
  |                                            |  +-- Hemistena_lata             
  |                                            +--+                              
  |                                               +-- Eurynia_dilatata           
--+                                                                              
  |  +----------------------------------------------- Amblema_plicata            
  |  |                                                                           
  |  +----------------------------------------------- Popenaias_popeii **           
  |  |                                                                           
  |  |                                         +----- Paetulunio_fabalis         
  |  |                                         |                                 
  |  |  +--------------------------------------+  +-- Toxolasma_parvum           
  +--+  |                                      |  |                              
     |  |                                      +--+-- Toxolasma_lividum          
     |  |                                         |                              
     |  |                                         +-- Toxolasma_texasiense       
     |  |                                                                        
     |  |                                      +----- Obliquaria_reflexa         
     |  |  +-----------------------------------+                                 
     +--+  |                                   |  +-- Glebula_rotundata          
        |  |                                   +--+                              
        |  |                                      +-- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis    
        |  |                                                                     
        |  |                                   +----- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
        |  |                                +--+                                 
        |  |                                |  |  +-- Dromus_dromas              
        |  |                                |  +--+                              
        +--+  +-----------------------------+     +-- Cyprogenia_stegaria        
           |  |                             |                                    
           |  |                             |  +----- Medionidus_conradicus      
           |  |                             +--+                                 
           |  |                                |  +-- Medionidus_acutissimus     
           |  |                                +--+                              
           |  |                                   +-- Lemiox_rimosus             
           |  |                                                                  
           |  |  +----------------------------------- Sagittunio_nasutus         
           |  |  |                                                               
           +--+  |                    +-------------- Potamilus_leptodon         
              |  |                    |                                          
              |  +--------------------+  +----------- Potamilus_fragilis         
              |  |                    |  |                                       
              |  |                    +--+        +-- Potamilus_alatus           
              |  |                       |  +-----+                              
              |  |                       |  |     +-- Potamilus_purpuratus       
              |  |                       +--+                                    
              |  |                          |  +----- Potamilus_inflatus         
              |  |                          +--+                                 
              +--+                             |  +-- Potamilus_ohiensis         
                 |                             +--+                              
                 |                                +-- Potamilus_amphichaenus     
                 |                                                               
                 |                                +-- Truncilla_truncata         
                 |  +-----------------------------+                              
                 |  |                             +-- Ellipsaria_lineolata       
                 |  |                                                            
                 |  |                             +-- Ortmanniana_pectorosa      
                 |  |                       +-----+                              
                 |  |                       |     +-- Lampsilis_fasciola         
                 |  |  +--------------------+                                    
                 +--+  |                    |  +----- Lampsilis_ornata           
                    |  |                    +--+                                 
                    |  |                       |  +-- Lampsilis_ovata            
                    |  |                       +--+                              
                    |  |                          +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
                    |  |                                                         
                    |  |                          +-- Ligumia_recta              
                    +--+                 +--------+                              
                       |                 |        +-- Cambarunio_iris            
                       |  +--------------+                                       
                       |  |              |  +-------- Lampsilis_teres            
                       |  |              |  |                                    
                       |  |              +--+     +-- Hamiota_australis          
                       |  |                 |  +--+                              
                       |  |                 |  |  +-- Hamiota_subangulata        
                       +--+                 +--+                                 
                          |                    |  +-- Hamiota_altilis            
                          |                    +--+                              
                          |                       +-- Hamiota_perovalis          
                          |                                                      
                          |  +----------------------- Leaunio_vanuxemensis       
                          |  |                                                   
                          +--+  +-------------------- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
                             |  |                                                
                             |  |  +----------------- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      
                             +--+  |                                             
                                |  |  +-------------- Obovaria_olivaria          
                                |  |  |                                          
                                +--+  |           +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
                                   |  +-----------+                              
                                   |  |           +-- Venustaconcha_pleasii      
                                   |  |                                          
                                   +--+        +----- Obovaria_unicolor          
                                      +--------+                                 
                                      |        |  +-- Obovaria_subrotunda        
                                      |        +--+                              
                                      |           +-- Obovaria_arkansasensis     
                                      |                                          
                                      |  +----------- Epioblasma_brevidens       
                                      +--+                                       
                                         |  +-------- Epioblasma_triquetra       
                                         +--+                                    
                                            |  +----- Epioblasma_rangiana        
                                            +--+                                 
                                               |  +-- Epioblasma_walkeri         
                                               +--+                              
                                                  +-- Epioblasma_capsaeformis    

Chapman et al., 2008, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 20 19 4 --
  +-------------------------------- Plectomerus_dombeyanus     
  |                                                            
--+  +----------------------------- Popenaias_popeii **           
  |  |                                                         
  +--+  +-------------------------- Toxolasma_lividum          
     |  |                                                      
     +--+  +----------------------- Obliquaria_reflexa         
        |  |                                                   
        |  |                    +-- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis    
        +--+  +-----------------+                              
           |  |                 +-- Glebula_rotundata          
           |  |                                                
           +--+                 +-- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
              |  +--------------+                              
              |  |              +-- Lemiox_rimosus             
              |  |                                             
              +--+              +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
                 |  +-----------+                              
                 |  |           +-- Obovaria_olivaria          
                 +--+                                          
                    |  +----------- Hamiota_subangulata        
                    +--+                                       
                       |  +-------- Lampsilis_ovata            
                       +--+                                    
                          |  +----- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
                          +--+                                 
                             |  +-- Lampsilis_straminea        
                             +--+                              
                                +-- Lampsilis_hydiana          

Campbell & Lydeard, 2012, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 43 43 4 --
              +----- Popenaias_popeii **       
  +-----------+                             
  |           |  +-- Amblema_elliottii      
  |           +--+                          
  |              +-- Amblema_plicata        
--+                                         
  |           +----- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis
  |  +--------+                             
  |  |        |  +-- Reginaia_ebenus        
  |  |        +--+                          
  +--+           +-- Reginaia_rotulata      
     |                                      
     |  +----------- Plectomerus_dombeyanus 
     +--+                                   
        |  +-------- Lemiox_rimosus         
        +--+                                
           |  +----- Lampsilis_ovata        
           +--+                             
              |  +-- Obovaria_unicolor      
              +--+                          
                 +-- Obovaria_olivaria      

Campbell & Lydeard, 2012, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 43 43 4 --
                 +-- Reginaia_ebenus        
              +--+                          
              |  +-- Reginaia_rotulata      
  +-----------+                             
  |           |  +-- Amblema_elliottii      
  |           +--+                          
--+              +-- Amblema_plicata        
  |                                         
  |  +-------------- Popenaias_popeii **       
  |  |                                      
  +--+  +----------- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis
     |  |                                   
     +--+----------- Plectomerus_dombeyanus 
        |                                   
        |  +-------- Lemiox_rimosus         
        +--+                                
           |  +----- Lampsilis_ovata        
           +--+                             
              |  +-- Obovaria_unicolor      
              +--+                          
                 +-- Obovaria_olivaria      

Campbell & Lydeard, 2012, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 50 50 4 --
     +----- Popenaias_popeii **  
  +--+                        
  |  |  +-- Amblema_elliottii 
  |  +--+                     
--+     +-- Amblema_plicata   
  |                           
  |     +-- Reginaia_ebenus[1]
  |     |                     
  +-----+-- Reginaia_ebenus[2]
        |                     
        +-- Reginaia_rotulata 

Campbell & Lydeard, 2012, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 43 43 4 --
           +----- Popenaias_popeii **       
  +--------+                             
  |        |  +-- Amblema_elliottii      
  |        +--+                          
  |           +-- Amblema_plicata        
--+                                      
  |  +----------- Plectomerus_dombeyanus 
  |  |                                   
  |  |     +----- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis
  |  +-----+                             
  +--+     |  +-- Reginaia_ebenus        
     |     +--+                          
     |        +-- Reginaia_rotulata      
     |                                   
     |  +-------- Lemiox_rimosus         
     +--+                                
        |  +----- Lampsilis_ovata        
        +--+                             
           |  +-- Obovaria_unicolor      
           +--+                          
              +-- Obovaria_olivaria      

Campbell & Lydeard, 2012, fig. 1-2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 73 73 4 --
                 +----- Popenaias_popeii **           
  +--------------+                                 
  |              |  +-- Amblema_elliottii          
  |              +--+                              
  |                 +-- Amblema_plicata            
  |                                                
  |  +----------------- Potamilus_alatus           
--+  |                                             
  |  +----------------- Potamilus_capax            
  |  |                                             
  |  +----------------- Glebula_rotundata          
  |  |                                             
  |  |              +-- Toxolasma_lividum          
  |  +--------------+                              
  +--+              +-- Paetulunio_fabalis         
     |                                             
     |              +-- Dromus_dromas              
     +--------------+                              
     |              +-- Lemiox_rimosus             
     |                                             
     |              +-- Lampsilis_ovata            
     |  +-----------+                              
     |  |           +-- Obliquaria_reflexa         
     +--+                                          
        |  +----------- Lampsilis_virescens        
        |  |                                       
        +--+        +-- Epioblasma_rangiana        
           |  +-----+                              
           |  |     +-- Obovaria_arkansasensis     
           +--+                                    
              |  +----- Obovaria_olivaria          
              +--+                                 
                 |  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
                 +--+                              
                    +-- Venustaconcha_pleasii      

Campbell & Lydeard, 2012, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 73 73 4 --
                                +-- Amblema_elliottii          
                             +--+                              
                             |  +-- Amblema_plicata            
  +--------------------------+                                 
  |                          |  +-- Reginaia_ebenus            
  |                          +--+                              
  |                             +-- Reginaia_rotulata          
--+                                                            
  |  +----------------------------- Popenaias_popeii **           
  |  |                                                         
  |  |                          +-- Glebula_rotundata          
  +--+  +-----------------------+                              
     |  |                       +-- Paetulunio_fabalis         
     |  |                                                      
     +--+                       +-- Toxolasma_lividum          
        |  +--------------------+                              
        |  |                    +-- Plectomerus_dombeyanus     
        |  |                                                   
        +--+  +-------------------- Obliquaria_reflexa         
           |  |                                                
           |  |                 +-- Dromus_dromas              
           |  |              +--+                              
           +--+              |  +-- Lemiox_rimosus             
              |  +-----------+                                 
              |  |           |  +-- Potamilus_alatus           
              |  |           +--+                              
              +--+              +-- Potamilus_capax            
                 |                                             
                 |  +-------------- Lampsilis_ovata            
                 |  |                                          
                 +--+  +----------- Lampsilis_virescens        
                    |  |                                       
                    +--+        +-- Epioblasma_rangiana        
                       |  +-----+                              
                       |  |     +-- Obovaria_arkansasensis     
                       +--+                                    
                          |  +----- Obovaria_olivaria          
                          +--+                                 
                             |  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
                             +--+                              
                                +-- Venustaconcha_pleasii      

Burlakova et al., 2012, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 44 44 3 --
                                            +-- Lampsilis_ovata         
  +-----------------------------------------+                           
  |                                         +-- Plectomerus_dombeyanus  
  |                                                                     
--+  +----------------------------------------- Popenaias_popeii **        
  |  |                                                                  
  |  |  +-------------------------------------- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis 
  +--+  |                                                               
     |  |  +----------------------------------- Parvaspina_collina      
     |  |  |                                                            
     +--+  |                             +----- Plethobasus_cyphyus     
        |  |  +--------------------------+                              
        |  |  |                          |  +-- Elliptio_arca           
        |  |  |                          +--+                           
        |  |  |                             +-- Elliptio_crassidens     
        +--+  |                                                         
           |  |        +----------------------- Fusconaia_subrotunda    
           |  |        |                                                
           |  |        |                    +-- Fusconaia_cor           
           |  |  +-----+  +-----------------+                           
           |  |  |     |  |                 +-- Fusconaia_cuneolus      
           |  |  |     |  |                                             
           |  |  |     +--+  +----------------- Fusconaia_ozarkensis    
           +--+  |        |  |                                          
              |  |        |  |        +-------- Fusconaia_askewi[4]     
              |  |        |  |  +-----+                                 
              |  |        +--+  |     |  +----- Fusconaia_askewi[3]     
              |  |           |  |     +--+                              
              |  |           |  |        |  +-- Fusconaia_lananensis    
              |  |           |  |        +--+                           
              |  |           +--+           +-- Fusconaia_askewi[2]     
              |  |              |                                       
              |  |              |           +-- Fusconaia_burkei        
              |  |              |  +--------+                           
              |  |              |  |        +-- Fusconaia_escambia      
              +--+              +--+                                    
                 |                 |  +-------- Fusconaia_masoni        
                 |                 +--+                                 
                 |                    |  +----- Fusconaia_cerina        
                 |                    +--+                              
                 |                       |  +-- Fusconaia_askewi[1]     
                 |                       +--+                           
                 |                          +-- Fusconaia_flava         
                 |                                                      
                 |                          +-- Eurynia_dilatata        
                 |  +-----------------------+                           
                 |  |                       +-- Hemistena_lata          
                 |  |                                                   
                 |  |                    +----- Pleuronaia_gibber       
                 |  |              +-----+                              
                 |  |              |     |  +-- Pleuronaia_dolabelloides
                 +--+              |     +--+                           
                    |  +-----------+        +-- Pleuronaia_barnesiana   
                    |  |           |                                    
                    |  |           |  +-------- Pleurobema_riddellii    
                    |  |           +--+                                 
                    |  |              |  +----- Pleurobema_sintoxia     
                    |  |              +--+                              
                    +--+                 |  +-- Pleurobema_rubrum       
                       |                 +--+                           
                       |                    +-- Pleurobema_cordatum     
                       |                                                
                       |  +-------------------- Pleurobema_stabile      
                       |  |                                             
                       +--+  +----------------- Pleurobema_pyriforme    
                          |  |                                          
                          |  |           +----- Pleurobema_georgianum   
                          +--+  +--------+                              
                             |  |        |  +-- Pleurobema_hanleyianum  
                             |  |        +--+                           
                             |  |           +-- Pleurobema_decisum      
                             +--+                                       
                                |           +-- Pleurobema_clava        
                                |  +--------+                           
                                |  |        +-- Pleurobema_oviforme     
                                +--+                                    
                                   |  +-------- Pleurobema_beadleianum  
                                   |  |                                 
                                   +--+     +-- Pleurobema_rubellum     
                                      |  +--+                           
                                      |  |  +-- Pleurobema_strodeanum   
                                      +--+                              
                                         |  +-- Pleurobema_perovatum    
                                         +--+                           
                                            +-- Pleurobema_taitianum    

Burlakova et al., 2019, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 32 32 4 --
  +----------------------- Plectomerus_dombeyanus 
  |                                               
  |  +-------------------- Popenaias_popeii **       
  |  |                                            
  |  |                 +-- Elliptio_crassidens    
  |  +-----------------+                          
--+  |                 +-- Pleurobema_rubellum    
  |  |                                            
  |  |                 +-- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis
  |  |              +--+                          
  |  |              |  +-- Glebula_rotundata      
  |  +--------------+                             
  |  |              |  +-- Reginaia_ebenus        
  +--+              +--+                          
     |                 +-- Obliquaria_reflexa     
     |                                            
     |  +----------------- Toxolasma_lividum      
     |  |                                         
     |  |              +-- Potamilus_fragilis     
     |  |  +-----------+                          
     |  |  |           +-- Potamilus_metnecktayi  
     |  |  |                                      
     |  |  |        +----- Medionidus_acutissimus 
     |  |  +--------+                             
     +--+  |        |  +-- Lemiox_rimosus         
        |  |        +--+                          
        |  |           +-- Dromus_dromas          
        |  |                                      
        |  |        +----- Ellipsaria_lineolata   
        |  |        |                             
        |  +--------+  +-- Truncilla_cognata      
        |  |        |  |                          
        +--+        |  +-- Truncilla_donaciformis 
           |        +--+                          
           |           +-- Truncilla_macrodon     
           |           |                          
           |           +-- Truncilla_truncata     
           |                                      
           |  +----------- Cambarunio_simus       
           |  |                                   
           |  +----------- Leaunio_lienosus       
           |  |                                   
           |  +----------- Villosa_villosa        
           |  |                                   
           |  |        +-- Sagittunio_nasutus     
           |  +--------+                          
           +--+        +-- Lampsilis_ovata        
              |                                   
              |     +----- Venustaconcha_pleasii  
              +-----+                             
              |     |  +-- Epioblasma_rangiana    
              |     +--+                          
              |        +-- Obovaria_unicolor      
              |                                   
              |  +-------- Lampsilis_teres        
              +--+                                
                 |  +----- Lampsilis_siliquoidea  
                 +--+                             
                    |  +-- Lampsilis_hydiana      
                    +--+                          
                       +-- Lampsilis_straminea    

Smith et al., 2019, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 41 41 3 --
                                +----- Popenaias_popeii **           
  +-----------------------------+                                 
  |                             |  +-- Glebula_rotundata          
  |                             +--+                              
  |                                +-- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis    
  |                                                               
  |  +-------------------------------- Obliquaria_reflexa         
--+  |                                                            
  |  |                             +-- Medionidus_conradicus      
  |  |                          +--+                              
  |  |                          |  +-- Lemiox_rimosus             
  |  |  +-----------------------+                                 
  |  |  |                       |  +-- Cyprogenia_stegaria        
  |  |  |                       +--+                              
  +--+  |                          +-- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
     |  |                                                         
     |  |                          +-- Hamiota_subangulata        
     |  |     +--------------------+                              
     |  |     |                    +-- Villosa_villosa            
     |  |     |                                                   
     |  |  +--+  +-------------------- Ligumia_recta              
     |  |  |  |  |                                                
     +--+  |  |  |              +----- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
        |  |  +--+  +-----------+                                 
        |  |     |  |           |  +-- Obovaria_subrotunda        
        |  |     |  |           +--+                              
        |  |     +--+              +-- Epioblasma_rangiana        
        |  |        |                                             
        |  |        |  +-------------- Ortmanniana_pectorosa      
        |  |        +--+                                          
        |  |           |  +----------- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
        |  |           +--+                                       
        |  |              |  +-------- Lampsilis_ovata            
        |  |              +--+                                    
        +--+                 |  +----- Lampsilis_dolabraeformis   
           |                 +--+                                 
           |                    |  +-- Lampsilis_satura           
           |                    +--+                              
           |                       +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
           |                                                      
           |           +-------------- Atlanticoncha_ochracea     
           |     +-----+                                          
           |     |     |  +----------- Ellipsaria_lineolata       
           |     |     +--+                                       
           |     |        |  +-------- Truncilla_truncata         
           |     |        +--+                                    
           |     |           |  +----- Truncilla_cognata          
           |     |           +--+                                 
           +-----+              |  +-- Truncilla_macrodon         
                 |              +--+                              
                 |                 +-- Truncilla_donaciformis     
                 |                                                
                 |  +----------------- Potamilus_capax            
                 |  |                                             
                 |  |           +----- Potamilus_inflatus         
                 +--+  +--------+                                 
                    |  |        |  +-- Potamilus_fragilis         
                    |  |        +--+                              
                    |  |           +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
                    +--+                                          
                       |        +----- Potamilus_ohiensis         
                       |  +-----+                                 
                       |  |     |  +-- Potamilus_amphichaenus     
                       |  |     +--+                              
                       +--+        +-- Potamilus_streckersoni     
                          |                                       
                          |  +-------- Potamilus_metnecktayi      
                          +--+                                    
                             |  +----- Potamilus_purpuratus[1]    
                             +--+                                 
                                |  +-- Potamilus_purpuratus[2]    
                                +--+                              
                                   +-- Potamilus_alatus           

Teiga-Teixeira et al., 2020, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 18 13 4 --
  +-------------------- Amblema_plicata            
  |                                                
--+  +----------------- Popenaias_popeii **           
  |  |                                             
  +--+  +-------------- Toxolasma_parvum           
     |  |                                          
     |  |           +-- Potamilus_alatus           
     +--+  +--------+                              
        |  |        +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
        |  |                                       
        +--+        +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
           |  +-----+                              
           |  |     +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
           +--+                                    
              |  +----- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
              +--+                                 
                 |  +-- Lampsilis_powellii         
                 +--+                              
                    +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      

Wu et al., 2022, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 73 14 4 --
  +----------------------- Amblema_plicata            
  |                                                   
--+  +-------------------- Popenaias_popeii **           
  |  |                                                
  +--+  +----------------- Toxolasma_parvum           
     |  |                                             
     +--+              +-- Potamilus_alatus           
        |  +-----------+                              
        |  |           +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
        +--+                                          
           |  +----------- Leaunio_lienosus           
           |  |                                       
           +--+        +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
              |  +-----+                              
              |  |     +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
              +--+                                    
                 |  +----- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
                 +--+                                 
                    |  +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      
                    +--+                              
                       +-- Lampsilis_powellii         

Page updated: 11:38:23 Fri 02 Dec 2022

 
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