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Page last updated
Sat 02 Mar 2024

The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves)

FM(U)otW(aolcb) is the web version of the MUSSEL Project Database. Follow the links to browse the data or use the custom Google search field. Either way, you win!

Cladomics pages are experimental — even more so than the rest of this site!

The purpose of the cladomics pages for each genus and family-group level taxon is to provide statistics and references indicating the extent to which published phylogenetic work supports the classification used here.

The Cladomics Summary provides an overview of the number of studies that have included terminal species representing this taxon as well as an indication of how frequently it has been recovered as monophyletic.

Following the summary, the available published clades representing the taxon are listed.

For more information, visit the Cladomics FARQ (frequently asked rhetorical questions) page. Abbreviations for the various statistics are explained on the FARQ!

Search the database pages:

Unionoida | Unionoidea | Unionidae | Unioninae | Anodontini | Alasmidontina

genus Utterbackia F.C. Baker, 1927: cladomics
     3 valid species

Cladomics Summary

number of species = 3

analyzed in 97 cladograms in 53 publications
maximum number of terminals in an analysis = 3, mean = 1.57

Basic Monophyly

number of cladograms that test basic monophyly (i.e., more than 1 included species) = 49
maximum number of included terminals = 3, mean = 2.12
proportion of cladograms that support basic monophyly = 0.94


Pairwise Cladogram Clustering

The graphs below depict in two dimensions all pair-wise ingroup distances within the cladome. See the Cladmoics FARQ for more information.


PCoA Ordination


NJ tree


Whelan et al., 2023 [Publ 4287], fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 3 1 3 41 33 12 0.0

*** Top Monophyly Cladogram *** *** Top Sister-Group Cladogram ***

                       +----- Utterbackia_peninsularis[2] **     
                    +--+                                      
                    |  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis[1] **     
                    |  +--+                                   
  +-----------------+     +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **          
  |                 |                                         
  |                 |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis[2]            
  |                 +--+                                      
  |                    |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis[1]            
  |                    +--+                                   
  |                       +-- Pyganodon_lacustris             
  |                                                           
  |                       +-- Utterbackiana_couperiana        
  |                    +--+                                   
  |                    |  +-- Utterbackiana_heardi            
  |              +-----+                                      
  |              |     |  +-- Utterbackiana_suborbiculata     
--+              |     +--+                                   
  |              |        +-- Utterbackiana_hartfieldorum     
  |  +-----------+                                            
  |  |           |     +----- Lasmigona_costata               
  |  |           |  +--+                                      
  |  |           |  |  |  +-- Pseudodontoideus_subvexus       
  |  |           |  |  +--+                                   
  |  |           +--+     +-- Pseudodontoideus_connasaugaensis
  |  |              |                                         
  |  |              |  +----- Lasmigona_complanata            
  |  |              +--+                                      
  |  |                 |  +-- Arcidens_confragosus            
  |  |                 +--+                                   
  |  |                    +-- Arcidens_wheeleri               
  +--+                                                        
     |     +----------------- Pressodonta_viridis             
     |     |                                                  
     |  +--+              +-- Anodontoides_denigratus         
     |  |  |  +-----------+                                   
     |  |  |  |           +-- Anodontoides_ferussacianus      
     |  |  +--+                                               
     |  |     |  +----------- Strophitus_undulatus            
     |  |     +--+                                            
     |  |        |  +-------- Strophitus_pascagoulaensis[2]   
     |  |        +--+                                         
     |  |           |  +----- Strophitus_radiatus             
     +--+           +--+                                      
        |              |  +-- Strophitus_pascagoulaensis[1]   
        |              +--+                                   
        |                 +-- Strophitus_williamsi            
        |                                                     
        |              +----- Prolasmidonta_heterodon         
        |  +-----------+                                      
        |  |           |  +-- Platynaias_subviridis           
        |  |           +--+                                   
        |  |              +-- Platynaias_compressa            
        +--+                                                  
           |              +-- Alasmidonta_holstonia           
           |  +-----------+                                   
           |  |           +-- Alasminota_etowaensis           
           |  |                                               
           +--+           +-- Alasmidonta_raveneliana         
              |  +--------+                                   
              |  |        +-- Alasmidonta_marginata           
              |  |                                            
              +--+        +-- Alasmidonta_varicosa            
                 |  +-----+                                   
                 |  |     +-- Alasmidonta_uwharriensis        
                 +--+                                         
                    |  +----- Alasmidonta_undulata            
                    +--+                                      
                       |  +-- Alasmidonta_triangulata         
                       +--+                                   
                          +-- Alasmidonta_arcula              

Breton et al., 2011 [Publ 3376], fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 3 1 3 36 9 5 0.0
           +-- Platynaias_compressa       
        +--+                              
        |  +-- Platynaias_subviridis      
  +-----+                                 
  |     |  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata      
  |     +--+                              
  |        +-- Alasmidonta_undulata       
--+                                       
  |        +-- Pyganodon_lacustris        
  |  +-----+                              
  |  |     +-- Pyganodon_grandis          
  +--+                                    
     |  +----- Utterbackia_peninsularis[2] **
     +--+                                 
        |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis[1] **
        +--+                              
           +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **     

Hoeh et al., 1995 [Publ 3391], fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 3 1 3 4 4 1 2.0
     +----- Utterbackia_peggyae **     
  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  |  +--+                           
--+     +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  |                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_lacustris     
  |  |                              
  +--+----- Pyganodon_grandis       
     |                              
     |  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta     
     +--+                           
        +-- Pyganodon_fragilis      

Inoue et al., 2014 [Publ 3635], fig. 3A

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 3 1 3 18 12 7 1.0
     +-------- Pyganodon_grandis          
  +--+                                    
  |  |  +----- Utterbackia_peninsularis[2] **
  |  +--+                                 
  |     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **     
  |     +--+                              
--+        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis[1] **
  |                                       
  |        +-- Platynaias_compressa       
  |  +-----+                              
  |  |     +-- Platynaias_subviridis      
  +--+                                    
     |  +----- Alasmidonta_marginata      
     +--+                                 
        |  +-- Alasmidonta_undulata       
        +--+                              
           +-- Alasmidonta_varicosa       

Chase et al., 2018 [Publ 3847], fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 3 1 3 36 9 5 0.0
              +-- Pyganodon_lacustris        
        +-----+                              
        |     +-- Pyganodon_grandis          
  +-----+                                    
  |     |  +----- Utterbackia_peninsularis[2] **
  |     +--+                                 
  |        |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis[1] **
  |        +--+                              
--+           +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **     
  |                                          
  |           +-- Lasmigona_costata          
  |  +--------+                              
  |  |        +-- Lasmigona_complanata       
  |  |                                       
  +--+        +-- Alasmidonta_undulata       
     |  +-----+                              
     |  |     +-- Alasmidonta_marginata      
     +--+                                    
        |  +----- Strophitus_undulatus       
        +--+                                 
           |  +-- Platynaias_compressa       
           +--+                              
              +-- Platynaias_subviridis      

Inoue et al., 2018 [Publ 3858], fig. 1, 3a-c

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 21 0 3 202 14 8 19.0
  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata      
  |                              
  +-- Prolasmidonta_heterodon    
  |                              
  +-- Alasmidonta_undulata       
  |                              
  +-- Beringiana_beringiana      
  |                              
  +-- Anodonta_kennerlyi         
  |                              
  +-- Anodonta_nuttalliana       
  |                              
  +-- Anodonta_oregonensis       
  |                              
  +-- Arcidens_confragosus       
  |                              
  +-- Arcidens_wheeleri          
  |                              
  +-- Lasmigona_complanata       
  |                              
--+-- Platynaias_compressa       
  |                              
  +-- Lasmigona_costata          
  |                              
  +-- Platynaias_decorata        
  |                              
  +-- Platynaias_subviridis      
  |                              
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis          
  |                              
  +-- Pyganodon_lacustris        
  |                              
  +-- Pseudodontoideus_subvexus  
  |                              
  +-- Strophitus_undulatus       
  |                              
  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **     
  |                              
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis[1] **
  |                              
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis[2] **

Zanatta et al., 2007 [Publ 2698], fig. 1A

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 14 12 4 --
     +-- Utterbackia_peggyae **   
  +--+                         
  |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **
  |                            
--+  +-- Pyganodon_gibbosa     
  |  |                         
  |  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta   
  |  |                         
  +--+-- Pyganodon_fragilis    
     |                         
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis     
     |                         
     +-- Pyganodon_lacustris   

Zanatta et al., 2007 [Publ 2698], fig. 1B

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 14 12 4 --
              +-- Utterbackia_peggyae **   
  +-----------+                         
  |           +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **
--+                                     
  |  +----------- Pyganodon_lacustris   
  +--+                                  
     |  +-------- Pyganodon_grandis     
     +--+                               
        |  +----- Pyganodon_fragilis    
        +--+                            
           |  +-- Pyganodon_gibbosa     
           +--+                         
              +-- Pyganodon_cataracta   

Hoeh, 1990 [Publ 2717], fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 14 12 4 --
              +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **
  +-----------+                         
  |           +-- Utterbackia_peggyae **   
--+                                     
  |  +----------- Pyganodon_lacustris   
  +--+                                  
     |  +-------- Pyganodon_grandis     
     +--+                               
        |  +----- Pyganodon_fragilis    
        +--+                            
           |  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta   
           +--+                         
              +-- Pyganodon_gibbosa     

Hoeh, 1990 [Publ 2717], fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 16 0 2 14 12 4 16.0
  +----- Pyganodon_fragilis         
  |                                 
  +----- Utterbackia_imbecillis **     
  |                                 
  +----- Utterbackia_peggyae **        
  |                                 
  +----- Anodonta_cygnea            
  |                                 
  +----- Anodonta_kennerlyi         
  |                                 
  +----- Utterbackiana_couperiana[1]
  |                                 
--+----- Utterbackiana_couperiana[2]
  |                                 
  +----- Utterbackiana_suborbiculata
  |                                 
  |  +-- Lasmigona_costata          
  +--+                              
  |  +-- Utterbackiana_implicata    
  |                                 
  |  +-- Lasmigona_complanata       
  |  |                              
  |  +-- Platynaias_compressa       
  |  |                              
  |  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta        
  +--+                              
     +-- Pyganodon_gibbosa          
     |                              
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis          
     |                              
     +-- Pyganodon_lacustris        

Hoeh, 1990 [Publ 2717], fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 14 12 4 --
           +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **
  +--------+                         
  |        +-- Utterbackia_peggyae **   
--+                                  
  |  +-------- Pyganodon_fragilis    
  |  |                               
  +--+     +-- Pyganodon_cataracta   
     |  +--+                         
     |  |  +-- Pyganodon_gibbosa     
     +--+                            
        |  +-- Pyganodon_lacustris   
        +--+                         
           +-- Pyganodon_grandis     

Huang et al., 2013 [Publ 3629], fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 14 2 2 --
  +-------- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Zhou et al., 2016 [Publ 3710], fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 18 2 2 --
  +-------- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Wu et al., 2016 [Publ 3711], fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 19 1 1 --
  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
--+                              
  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  +--+                           
     +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Guerra et al., 2017 [Publ 3772], fig. 2a

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 23 3 2 --
        +-- Platynaias_subviridis   
  +-----+                           
  |     +-- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Guerra et al., 2017 [Publ 3772], fig. 2b

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 23 3 2 --
        +-- Platynaias_subviridis   
  +-----+                           
  |     +-- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Fonseca et al., 2016 [Publ 3775], fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 30 2 2 --
  +-------- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Amaro et al., 2017 [Publ 3791], fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 16 3 3 --
        +-- Lasmigona_costata       
  +-----+                           
  |     +-- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Amaro et al., 2017 [Publ 3791], fig. 3A

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 10 2 2 --
  +-------- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Amaro et al., 2017 [Publ 3791], fig. 3B

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 10 2 2 --
  +-------- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Lopes-Lima et al., 2017 [Publ 3792], fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 31 2 2 --
  +-------- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Huang et al., 2018 [Publ 3828], fig. 6

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 41 2 2 --
  +-------- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Soroka & Burzynski, 2017 [Publ 3837], fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 22 2 2 --
  +-------- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Huang et al., 2019 [Publ 3843], fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 202 5 5 --
  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
--+                              
  |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  +--+                           
     +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Huang et al., 2019 [Publ 3843], fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 55 2 2 --
  +-------- Lasmigona_costata       
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Huang et al., 2019 [Publ 3843], fig. S3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 199 5 5 --
  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
--+                              
  |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  +--+                           
     +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Huang et al., 2019 [Publ 3843], fig. S4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 200 5 5 --
  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
--+                           
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Aunins et al., 2018 [Publ 3863], fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 39 3 3 --
        +-- Prolasmidonta_heterodon 
  +-----+                           
  |     +-- Alasmidonta_varicosa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Wu et al., 2019 [Publ 3864], fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 45 2 2 --
  +-------- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Cha et al., 2018 [Publ 3916], fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 37 2 2 --
  +-------- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Froufe et al., 2019 [Publ 3936], fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 43 2 2 --
  +-------- Lasmigona_complanata    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Froufe et al., 2019 [Publ 3936], fig. 6

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 43 2 2 --
  +-------- Lasmigona_complanata    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Riccardi et al., 2019 [Publ 4089], fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 18 2 2 --
  +-------- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Wu et al., 2020 [Publ 4121], fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 48 2 2 --
  +-------- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Sano et al., 2020 [Publ 4138], fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 71 4 4 --
     +----- Alasmidonta_varicosa    
  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Prolasmidonta_heterodon 
  |  +--+                           
--+     +-- Platynaias_compressa    
  |                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Sano et al., 2020 [Publ 4138], fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 70 4 4 --
     +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  |  +--+                           
--+     +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  |                                 
  |  +----- Alasmidonta_varicosa    
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Platynaias_compressa    
     +--+                           
        +-- Prolasmidonta_heterodon 

Sano et al., 2020 [Publ 4138], fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 70 4 4 --
     +----- Alasmidonta_varicosa    
  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Prolasmidonta_heterodon 
  |  +--+                           
--+     +-- Platynaias_compressa    
  |                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Wu et al., 2018 [Publ 4143], fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 20 1 1 --
  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
--+                              
  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  +--+                           
     +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Wu et al., 2020 [Publ 4147], fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 28 1 1 --
  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
--+                              
  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  +--+                           
     +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Guerra et al., 2019 [Publ 4168], fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 39 3 2 --
        +-- Platynaias_compressa    
  +-----+                           
  |     +-- Platynaias_subviridis   
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Guerra et al., 2019 [Publ 4168], fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 39 3 2 --
        +-- Platynaias_compressa    
  +-----+                           
  |     +-- Platynaias_subviridis   
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  

Chen et al., 2020 [Publ 4170], fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 27 0 2 32 4 4 26.0
                 +-------- Schistodesmus_lampreyanus
           +-----+                                  
           |     |  +----- Lepidodesma_languilati   
           |     +--+                               
           |        |  +-- Aculamprotula_coreana    
           |        +--+                            
  +--------+           +-- Aculamprotula_tortuosa   
  |        |                                        
  |        |        +----- Platynaias_compressa     
  |        |  +-----+                               
  |        |  |     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **   
  |        |  |     +--+                            
  |        +--+        +-- Pyganodon_grandis        
  |           |                                     
  |           |  +-------- Sinanodonta_lucida       
  |           +--+                                  
  |              |  +----- Cristaria_plicata        
  |              +--+                               
--+                 |  +-- Anodonta_cygnea          
  |                 +--+                            
  |                    +-- Anodonta_anatina         
  |                                                 
  |     +----------------- Gibbosula_crassa         
  |  +--+                                           
  |  |  |  +-------------- Quadrula_quadrula        
  |  |  +--+                                        
  |  |     |  +----------- Toxolasma_parvum         
  |  |     +--+                                     
  |  |        |  +-------- Lampsilis_ornata         
  |  |        +--+                                  
  |  |           |  +----- Potamilus_leptodon       
  +--+           +--+                               
     |              |  +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea    
     |              +--+                            
     |                 +-- Lampsilis_powellii       
     |                                              
     |                 +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis ** 
     |  +--------------+                            
     |  |              +-- Potamilus_alatus         
     +--+                                           
        |  +-------------- Lamprotula_leaii         
        |  |                                        
        +--+           +-- Sinohyriopsis_cumingii   
           |  +--------+                            
           |  |        +-- Sinohyriopsis_schlegelii 
           +--+                                     
              |  +-------- Parvasolenaia_rivularis  
              +--+                                  
                 |  +----- Sinosolenaia_carinata    
                 +--+                               
                    |  +-- Sinosolenaia_iridinea    
                    +--+                            
                       +-- Sinosolenaia_oleivora    

Zieritz et al., 2021 [Publ 4231], fig. 3-F, 5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 47 2 2 --
  +-------- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Wu et al., 2022 [Publ 4238], fig. 2d

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 37 2 2 --
  +-------- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Wu et al., 2022 [Publ 4238], fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 72 2 2 --
  +-------- Platynaias_compressa    
--+                                 
  |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
     +--+                           
        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Wu et al., 2023 [Publ 4339], fig. 4, S5-aa

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 94 5 5 --
     +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  |  +--+                           
  |     +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
--+                                 
  |     +-- Alasmidonta_varicosa    
  |  +--+                           
  |  |  +-- Platynaias_compressa    
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Prolasmidonta_heterodon 
     +--+                           
        +-- Lasmigona_complanata    

Wu et al., 2023 [Publ 4339], fig. 4, S5-nt

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 95 5 5 --
        +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +-----+                              
  |     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  |     +--+                           
--+        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  |                                    
  |  +-------- Lasmigona_complanata    
  +--+                                 
     |  +----- Prolasmidonta_heterodon 
     +--+                              
        |  +-- Alasmidonta_varicosa    
        +--+                           
           +-- Platynaias_compressa    

Wu et al., 2024 [Publ 4350], fig. 8a, S1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 90 5 5 --
        +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +-----+                              
  |     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  |     +--+                           
--+        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  |                                    
  |  +-------- Lasmigona_complanata    
  +--+                                 
     |  +----- Prolasmidonta_heterodon 
     +--+                              
        |  +-- Alasmidonta_varicosa    
        +--+                           
           +-- Platynaias_compressa    

Wu et al., 2024 [Publ 4350], fig. 8b, S2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 90 5 5 --
        +----- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +-----+                              
  |     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  |     +--+                           
--+        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
  |                                    
  |  +-------- Lasmigona_complanata    
  +--+                                 
     |  +----- Prolasmidonta_heterodon 
     +--+                              
        |  +-- Alasmidonta_varicosa    
        +--+                           
           +-- Platynaias_compressa    

Lydeard et al., 1996 [Publ 2656], fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 26 5 4 --
     +----- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Utterbackiana_couperiana
  |  +--+                           
--+     +-- Utterbackiana           
  |                                 
  |  +----- Strophitus_radiatus     
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Lasmigona_costata       
     +--+                           
        +-- Alasmidonta_triangulata 

Lydeard et al., 1996 [Publ 2656], fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 27 4 4 --
-- Utterbackia_imbecillis

Huang et al., 2002 [Publ 2657], fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 33 4 4 --
  +----------- Utterbackiana_couperiana
--+                                    
  |  +-------- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  +--+                                 
     |  +----- Strophitus_radiatus     
     +--+                              
        |  +-- Alasmidonta_triangulata 
        +--+                           
           +-- Lasmigona_costata       

Huang et al., 2002 [Publ 2657], fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 33 4 4 --
  +----- Utterbackia_imbecillis **  
  |                              
--+----- Utterbackiana_couperiana
  |                              
  |  +-- Alasmidonta_triangulata 
  +--+                           
     +-- Lasmigona_costata       

Krebs et al., 2003 [Publ 2691], fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 33 8 6 --
-- Utterbackia_imbecillis

Boyer et al., 2011 [Publ 2718], fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 37 8 7 --
        +----- Lasmigona_complanata      
  +-----+                                
  |     |  +-- Lasmigona_costata         
  |     +--+                             
--+        +-- Arcidens_confragosus      
  |                                      
  |  +-------- Utterbackia_imbecillis **    
  |  |                                   
  +--+-------- Alasmidonta_marginata     
     |                                   
     |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis         
     +--+                                
        |  +-- Anodontoides_ferussacianus
        +--+                             
           +-- Platynaias_compressa      

Rosenberg et al., 1994 [Publ 2719], fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 18 2 1 --
-- Utterbackia_imbecillis

Rosenberg et al., 1997 [Publ 2720], fig. 2A

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 22 2 1 --
-- Utterbackia_imbecillis

Rosenberg et al., 1997 [Publ 2720], fig. 2B

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 22 2 1 --
-- Utterbackia_imbecillis

Campbell, 2000 [Publ 2724], fig. 1-5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 2 0 0 --
-- Utterbackia_imbecillis

Mulvey et al., 1997 [Publ 3390], fig. 1, 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 4 0 0 --
-- Utterbackia_imbecillis

Huang et al., 2013 [Publ 3629], fig. 3-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 5 1 1 --
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       
--+                           
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Froufe et al., 2015 [Publ 3664], fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 11 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Froufe et al., 2015 [Publ 3664], fig. 1-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 7 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Soroka & Burzynski, 2018 [Publ 3762], fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 6 1 1 --
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       
--+                           
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Soroka & Burzynski, 2018 [Publ 3762], fig. 3-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 6 1 1 --
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       
--+                           
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Guerra et al., 2017 [Publ 3772], fig. 2a-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 7 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Guerra et al., 2017 [Publ 3772], fig. 2b-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 7 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Burzynski et al., 2017 [Publ 3774], fig. 1 bottom

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 12 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Burzynski et al., 2017 [Publ 3774], fig. 1 top

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 12 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Fonseca et al., 2016 [Publ 3775], fig. 1-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 8 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Smith et al., 2018 [Publ 3790], fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 18 17 7 --
                 +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **        
  +--------------+                                   
  |              +-- Pyganodon_grandis               
  |                                                  
  |              +-- Anodontoides_ferussacianus      
  |     +--------+                                   
  |     |        +-- Anodontoides_denigratus         
  |     |                                            
--+  +--+     +----- Strophitus_pascagoulaensis      
  |  |  |  +--+                                      
  |  |  |  |  |  +-- Strophitus_radiatus             
  |  |  |  |  +--+                                   
  |  |  +--+     +-- Strophitus_williamsi            
  |  |     |                                         
  |  |     |  +----- Strophitus_howellsi[2]          
  |  |     +--+                                      
  +--+        |  +-- Strophitus_undulatus            
     |        +--+                                   
     |           +-- Strophitus_howellsi[1]          
     |                                               
     |           +-- Alasmidonta_triangulata         
     |  +--------+                                   
     |  |        +-- Alasminota_etowaensis           
     |  |                                            
     +--+        +-- Pseudodontoideus_connasaugaensis
        |  +-----+                                   
        |  |     +-- Pseudodontoideus_subvexus       
        |  |                                         
        +--+     +-- Utterbackiana_couperiana        
           |  +--+                                   
           |  |  +-- Utterbackiana_heardi            
           +--+                                      
              |  +-- Utterbackiana_hartfieldorum     
              +--+                                   
                 +-- Utterbackiana_suborbiculata     

Amaro et al., 2017 [Publ 3791], fig. 2-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 9 2 2 --
-- Utterbackia_peninsularis

Amaro et al., 2017 [Publ 3791], fig. 3A-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 6 1 1 --
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       
--+                           
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Amaro et al., 2017 [Publ 3791], fig. 3B-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 6 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Lopes-Lima et al., 2017 [Publ 3792], fig. 2-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 9 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Wen et al., 2017 [Publ 3795], fig. 3-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 5 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Feng et al., 2016 [Publ 3800], fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 14 1 1 --
-- Utterbackia_peninsularis

Huang et al., 2018 [Publ 3828], fig. 6-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 16 1 1 --
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       
--+                           
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Huang et al., 2019 [Publ 3843], fig. 3-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 22 1 1 --
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       
--+                           
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Chase et al., 2018 [Publ 3847], fig. 5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 9 0 0 --
-- Utterbackia_peninsularis

Chase et al., 2018 [Publ 3861], fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 10 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Chase et al., 2018 [Publ 3861], fig. 1-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 10 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Burzynski & Soroka, 2018 [Publ 3862], fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 3 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Burzynski & Soroka, 2018 [Publ 3862], fig. 5a

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 19 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Burzynski & Soroka, 2018 [Publ 3862], fig. 5b

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 9 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Froufe et al., 2019 [Publ 3936], fig. 3-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 18 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Froufe et al., 2019 [Publ 3936], fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 18 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Fukata & Iigo, 2020 [Publ 4106], fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 53 3 3 --
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis       
  +--+                           
  |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                              
  |  +-- Alasmidonta_varicosa    
  +--+                           
     +-- Prolasmidonta_heterodon 

Guerra et al., 2019 [Publ 4168], fig. 1-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 21 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Guerra et al., 2019 [Publ 4168], fig. 2-M

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 21 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Zieritz et al., 2021 [Publ 4231], fig. 3-M, 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 22 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Wu et al., 2022 [Publ 4238], fig. 2e

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 16 1 1 --
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **
--+                           
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       

Dai et al., 2023 [Publ 4285], fig. 5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 52 2 2 --
  +----- Platynaias_compressa  
--+                            
  |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis     
  +--+                         
     +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **

Whelan et al., 2023 [Publ 4287], fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 28 27 11 --
                          +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **        
  +-----------------------+                                   
  |                       +-- Pyganodon_grandis               
  |                                                           
  |     +-------------------- Alasminota_etowaensis           
  |     |                                                     
  |     |              +----- Pressodonta_viridis             
  |  +--+  +-----------+                                      
  |  |  |  |           |  +-- Platynaias_subviridis           
  |  |  |  |           +--+                                   
--+  |  |  |              +-- Prolasmidonta_heterodon         
  |  |  +--+                                                  
  |  |     |              +-- Anodontoides_ferussacianus      
  |  |     |  +-----------+                                   
  |  |     |  |           +-- Anodontoides_denigratus         
  |  |     +--+                                               
  |  |        |  +----------- Strophitus_undulatus            
  |  |        +--+                                            
  |  |           |  +-------- Strophitus_pascagoulaensis[2]   
  |  |           +--+                                         
  +--+              |  +----- Strophitus_pascagoulaensis[1]   
     |              +--+                                      
     |                 |  +-- Strophitus_radiatus             
     |                 +--+                                   
     |                    +-- Strophitus_williamsi            
     |                                                        
     |                    +-- Arcidens_confragosus            
     |                 +--+                                   
     |                 |  +-- Arcidens_wheeleri               
     |        +--------+                                      
     |        |        |  +-- Pseudodontoideus_connasaugaensis
     |        |        +--+                                   
     |        |           +-- Pseudodontoideus_subvexus       
     +--------+                                               
              |           +-- Alasmidonta_marginata           
              |  +--------+                                   
              |  |        +-- Alasmidonta_raveneliana         
              |  |                                            
              +--+        +-- Alasmidonta_varicosa            
                 |  +-----+                                   
                 |  |     +-- Alasmidonta_uwharriensis        
                 +--+                                         
                    |  +----- Alasmidonta_undulata            
                    +--+                                      
                       |  +-- Alasmidonta_triangulata         
                       +--+                                   
                          +-- Alasmidonta_arcula              

Whelan et al., 2023 [Publ 4287], fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 28 26 10 --
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis         
  +-----+                             
  |     +-- Pyganodon_cataracta       
--+                                   
  |  +----- Utterbackia_peninsularis **  
  +--+                                
     |  +-- Anodontoides_ferussacianus
     +--+                             
        +-- Anodontoides_denigratus   

Smith, 2021 [Publ 4331], fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 19 1 1 --
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis       
--+                           
  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis **

Dai et al., 2024 [Publ 4358], fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 51 2 2 --
  +----- Platynaias_compressa  
--+                            
  |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis     
  +--+                         
     +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis **

Page updated: 11:31:34 Sat 02 Mar 2024

 
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