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27 December 2007

Palearctic Freshwater Mussels

Species Diversity and Biological vs. Comparatory Species Concepts

number of Biological and Comparatory species per Palearctic subregionTwo different modern traditions provide disparate estimates of Palearctic freshwater mussel diversity. Taxonomists that treat species as evolutionary entities (Biological species) list 45 species for the region, while eastern Russian practicioners of the Comparatory Method recognize more: 156. The chart to the right shows the diversity estimates for the different subregions of the Palearctic.

The diversity of Biological species is largely derived from Haas (1940, 1969), as updated by Falkner (1994; Falkner et al., 2001, 2002). For the Comparatory species, the basic references we Zatravkin (1983), Starobogatov et al (2004) and Kantor & Sysoev (2005). However, numerous additional references were consulted. We aligned the two systems using the nominal species shared between them and by assuming (following Korniushin, 1998) that the the Comparatory system was simply more "split" than the "lumped" classification of Biological species.

In the following table, "Biological" and "Comparatory" species are numbered to maintain a running count of diversity estimates based upon the two systems. Only species occurring in the Palearctic Region are numbered, but other taxa (shown in gray) are included to show correspondence between the two systems. The hyperlinks provide access to an online version of the MUSSEL Project Database, with more information about Palearctic freshwater mussel species.

Each Biological species is assigned to one or more subregions of the Palearctic; each is also provided with a concise range statement as determined from the literature reviewed.

*

indicates a Comparatory species inferred from a valid genus in Starobogatov (1970).

**

indicates a Comparatory species inferred from a corresponding Biological species.

Family UNIONIDAE

Unio Philippson in Retzius, 1788

Unio

1.

U. pictorum (Linnaeus, 1758). WESTERN: widespread in Europe from the Atlantic to the Volga and Black Sea.

1.

U. pictorum

2.

U. limosus (Nilsson, 1822)

3.

U. rostratus Lamarck, 1819

4.

U. protractus Lindholm, 1922

2.

U. tumidus Philippson in Retzius, 1788. WESTERN: widespread in Europe from the Atlantic to the Volga and Black Sea.

Tumidiana Servain, 1882

5.

T. tumida

6.

T. conus (Spengler, 1793)

7.

T. muelleri (Rossmässler, 1838)

3.

U. mancus Lamarck, 1819. WESTERN & SOUTHWESTERN: discontinuous, circum-Mediterranean distribution, including the Nile, and east to the Tigris-Euphrates Basin.

Turtoniana Locard, 1889

8.

T. manca*

4.

U. terminalis Bourguignat, 1852. SOUTHWESTERN: Orontes and Jordon basins.

Eolymnium (s.s.) Prashad, 1919

9.

E. (E.) terminalis

5.

U. tigridis Bourguignat, 1852. SOUTHWESTERN: Orontes east to the Tigris-Euphrates Basin.

10.

E. (E.) tigridis

6.

U. crassus gontieri Bourguignat, 1856. WESTERN: Ukraine south to Transcaucasia.

Eolymnium (Shadininaia) Starobogatov in Zatravkin, 1983

11.

E. (S.) byzantinium (Drouët, 1879)

12.

E. (S.) araxenum (Drouët, 1881)

13.

E. (S.) colchicum (Drouët, 1881)

14.

E. (S.) raddei (Drouët, 1881)

15.

E. (S.) koutaisianum (Kobelt, 1886)

Crassiana Servain, 1882

16.

C. irenjensis (Kobelt, 1912)

17.

C. mingrelica (Drouët, 1881)

18.

C. sobriewskii (Rosen, 1925)

19.

C. stevenianiformis (Zhadin, 1938)

20.

C. gregorii (Kobelt, 1912)

U. crassus crassus Philippson in Retzius, 1788, and other European and southwestern Asian subspecies. WESTERN & SOUTHWESTERN: widespread in Europe, from the Atlantic to the Volga, and southeast through the Tigris-Euphrates Basin.

21.

C. crassa

22.

C. musiva (Spengler, 1793)

23.

C. nana (Lamarck, 1819)

24.

C. fuscula (Rossmässler, 1835)

25.

C. cyprinorum (Locard, 1882)

26.

C. irgizlaica (Lindholm, 1904)

U. crassus mongolicus Middendorff, 1851. EASTERN: Amur Basin and Primorye, north to Magadan, eastern Russia.

Middendorffinaia (s.s.) Moskvicheva & Starobogatov, 1973

27.

M. (M.) mongolica

28.

M. (M.) arsenievi Moskvicheva & Starobogatov, 1973

29.

M. (M.) ussuriensis Moskvicheva & Starobogatov, 1973

30.

M. (M.) ochotica Bogatov, 2000

Inversidens Haas, 1911

Middendorffinaia (Pseudopotomida) Moskvicheva & Starobog., 1973

7.

I. pantoensis (Neumayr, 1899). EASTERN: widespread, from southern China north to Primorye, eastern Russia.

M. (P.) continentalis Haas, 1910

31.

M. (M.) dulkeitiana Moskvicheva & Starobogatov, 1973

32.

M. (P.) shadini Moskvicheva & Starobogatov, 1973

33.

M. (P.) suifunensis Moskvicheva & Starobogatov, 1973

34.

M. (P.) weliczkowskii Moskvicheva & Starobogatov, 1973

8.

I. brandtii (Kobelt, 1879). EASTERN: Endemic to Japan.

Inversidens

35.

I. brandtii *

9.

I. japanensis (Lea, 1859). EASTERN: Japan.

Pronodularia Starobogatov, 1970

36.

P. japanensis

37.

P. haconensis (von Ihering, 1893)

Inversiunio Habe, 1991

10.

I. reinianus (Kobelt, 1879). EASTERN: Japan.

38.

P. reiniana

39.

P. hirasei (Haas, 1911)

11.

I. jokohamensis (von Ihering, 1893). EASTERN: Japan.

40.

P. jokohamensis

12.

I. yanagawensis (Kondo, 1982). EASTERN: Japan.

41.

P. yanagawensis **

Nodularia Conrad, 1853

Nodularia (s.s.)

13.

N. douglasiae (Griffith & Pidgeon, 1834). EASTERN: widespread from China, Japan and Korea north through the Amur Basin and Sakhalin Island to Magadan.

N. (N.) douglasiae [China]

42.

N. (N.) amurensis (Mousson, 1887)

43.

N. (N.) middendorffi (Westerlund, 1890)

44.

N. (N.) schrencki (Westerlund, 1897)

45.

N. (N.) abbreviata (Westerlund, 1897)

46.

N. (N.) flavoviridis Haas, 1910

47.

N. (N.) vladivostokensis Moskvicheva, 1973

48.

N. (N.) moskvichevaeBogatov & Starobogatov, 1992

49.

N. (N.) sakhalinensis Bogatov, 2001

Nodularia (Amurunio) Zatravkin & Bogatov, 1987

50.

N. (A.) lebedevi Zatravkin & Starobogatov, 1984

Nodularia (Magadaninaia) Martynov & Chernyshev, 1992

51.

N. (M.) extremalis Martynov & Chernyshev, 1992

Lanceolaria Conrad, 1853

Lanceolaria (s.s.)

L. grayana (Lea, 1834). [China]

L. (L.) grayana

14.

L. cylindrica (Simpson, 1900). EASTERN: the Lower Amur Basin, including the Ussuri, in eastern Russia, south into China.

Lanceolaria (Pericylindrica) Tomlin, 1930

52.

L. (P.) maacki Moskvicheva, 1973

53.

L. (P.) chankensis Moskvicheva, 1973

54.

L. (P.) ussuriensis Moskvicheva, 1973

55.

L. (P.) bogatovi Zatravkin & Starobogatov, 1984

15.

L. acrorrhyncha (von Martens, 1894). EASTERN: Korea.

56.

L. (P.) acrorrhyncha **

16.

L. oxyrhyncha (von Martens, 1861). EASTERN: Japan.

57.

L. (P.) oxyrhycha **

Anodonta Lamarck, 1799

Anodonta

17.

A. cygnea (Linnaeus, 1758). WESTERN: from the Atlantic east through the Volga.

58.

A. cygnea

59.

A. zellensis (Gmelin, 1791)

60.

A. stagnalis (Gmelin, 1791)

18.

A. anatina (Linnaeus, 1758). WESTERN & CENTRAL: from Europe and northern Africa east to Lake Baikal.

Colletopterum (s.s.) Bourguignat, 1880

61.

C. (C.) subcirculare (Clessin, 1873)

62.

C. (C.) ostiarium (Drouët, 1881)

63.

C. (C.) convexum (Drouët, 1888)

64.

C. (C.) apollonicum (Bourguignat, 1880)

65.

C. (C.) milaschevichi (Bogatov, Starob. & Prozorova, 2005)

66.

C. (C.) baeri (Bogatov, Starobogatov & Prozorova, 2005)

Colletopterum (Piscinaliana) Bourguignat, 1881

67.

C. (P.) anatinum

68.

C. (P.) piscinale (Nilsson, 1823)

69.

C. (P.) ponderosum (Pfeiffer, 1825)

70.

C. (P.) rostratum (Rossmässler, 1836)

71.

C. (P.) depressum (Bourguignat, 1881)

72.

C. (P.) sorensianum (Dybowski, 1913)

73.

C. (P.) nilssonii (Küster, 1842)

19.

A. cyrea Drouët, 1881. CENTRAL: Aral Sea and southern Caspian Sea drainages.

74.

C. (P.) cyreum (Drouët, 1881)

75.

C. (P.) bactrianum (Rolle, 1897)

76.

C. (P.) kokandicum Starobogatov & Izzatullaev, 1984

20.

A. vescoiana Bourguignat, 1856. SOUTHWESTERN: Endemic to the Tigris-Euphrates Basin.

Euphrata Pallary, 1933

77.

E. vescoiana*

21.

A. pseudodopsis Locard, 1883. SOUTHWESTERN: Endemic to Lake Antioch, Syria.

Gabillotia Servain, 1890

78.

G. pseudodopsis *

22.

A. woodiana woodiana (Lea, 1834). EASTERN: widespread, from Indochina and China north to Korea, Japan, Primorye and the Amur Basin in eastern Russia.

Sinanodonta (s.s.) Modell, 1945

S. (S.) woodiana [SE Asia]

79.

S. (S.) fukudai Modell, 1947

80.

S. (S.) amurensis Moskvicheva, 1973

81.

S. (S.) schrencki Moskvicheva, 1973

82.

S. (S.) likharevi Moskvicheva, 1973

83.

S. (S.) crassitesta Moskvicheva, 1973

84.

S. (S.) primorjensisBogatov & Zatravkin, 1988

S. (S.) puerorum (Heude, 1880) [introduced]

S. (S.) orbicularis (Heude, 1880) [introduced]

S. (S.) gibba (Benson, 1855) [introduced]

Sinanodonta (Ellipsanodon) Bogatov & Starobogatov, 1996

85.

S. (E.) manchuricaBogatov & Starobogatov, 1996

A. woodiana japonica (von Martens in Clessin, 1874). EASTERN: Japan, Primorye, Sakhalin Island and the southern Kurils.

Kunashiria Starobogatov in Zatravkin, 1983

86.

K. japonica

87.

K. haconensis (von Ihering, 1893)

88.

K. iwakawai (Suzuki, 1939)

89.

K. iturupica Bogatov, Sayenko & Starobogatov, 1999

90.

K. sinanodontoides Bogatov, Sayenko & Starobog., 1999

91.

K. taranetzi (Zhadin, 1938)

92.

K. coptzevi (Zatravkin & Bogatov, 1987)

93.

K. zimini (Zatravkin & Bogatov, 1987)

94.

K. compressa (Bogatov & Starobogatov, 1996)

95.

K. zarjaensis (Bogatov & Zatravkin, 1988)

23.

A. ogurae (Kuroda & Habe, 1987). EASTERN: Japan.

Oguranodonta Kuroda & Habe, 1987

96.

O. ogurae

24.

A. beringiana Middendorff, 1851. EASTERN: widespread Beringian distribution, from Primorye, the Lower Amur and Sakhalin Island through the Kurils, Kamchatka and the Aleutians to Pacific North America.

Beringiana Starobogatov in Zatravkin, 1983

97.

B. beringiana

98.

B. youkanensis (Lea, 1867)

99.

B. kamchatica Bogatov & Starobogatov, 2001

B. georginensis Bogatov & Starobogatov, 2001 [USA]

100.

B. compressa Sayenko & Bogatov, 1998

101.

B. chereshnevi Bogatov & Starobogatov, 2001

102.

B. derzhavini Bogatov & Starobogatov, 2001

25.

A. euscaphys (Heude, 1879). EASTERN: China north to the Lower Amur, eastern Russia.

Anemina Haas, 1969

A. euscaphys [China]

103.

A. fuscoviridis (Moskvicheva, 1973)

26.

A. arcaeformis (Heude, 1877). EASTERN: China, Japan and Korea north to the Lower Amur and Primorye, eastern Russia.

A. arcaeformis [China]

104.

A. buldowskii (Moskvicheva, 1973)

105.

A. shadini (Moskvicheva, 1973)

Buldowskia Moskvicheva, 1973

106.

B. suifunica (Lindholm, 1925)

107.

B. suifunensis (Zhadin, 1938)

108.

B. flavotincta (von Martens, 1905)

109.

B. cylindrica Moskvicheva, 1973

110.

B. starobogatovi (Moskvicheva, 1973)

111.

B. suputinensis Moskvicheva, 1973

112.

B. koreana Bogatov & Starobogatov, 1996

113.

B. possietica Bogatov & Starobogatov, 1996

Amuranodonta Moskvicheva, 1973

114.

A. kijaensis Moskvicheva, 1973

115.

A. parva Moskvicheva, 1973

116.

A. sitaensis (Bogatov & Starobogatov, 1996)

117.

A. boloniensis (Zatravkin & Bogatov, 1987)

118.

A. lomakini (Zatravkin & Bogatov, 1987)

119.

A. pulchra Bogatov & Starobogatov, 1996

Pseudanodonta Bourguignat, 1877

Pseudanodonta

27.

P. complanata (Rossmässler, 1835). WESTERN: Atlantic Europe east to the Volga, including the Danube and other tributaries of the Black Sea.

120.

P. complanata

121.

P. nordenskioldi Bourguignat, 1880

122.

P. klettii (Rossmässler, 1835)

123.

P. middendorffi (Siemaschko, 1848)

124.

P. elongata (Holandre, 1836)

Cristaria Schumacher, 1817

Cristaria

28.

C. plicata (Leach, 1815). EASTERN: Indochina and China north to the Amur Basin, eastern Russia and Mongolia.

C. plicata [China]

125.

C. tuberculataSchumacher, 1817

126.

C. herculea (Middendorff, 1848)

29.

C. discoidea (Lea, 1834). EASTERN: widespread in eastern Asia, from Japan south to Indochina.

Pletholophus Simpson, 1900

127.

P. discoideus *

Hyriopsis Conrad, 1853

Hyriopsis

H. bialatus Simpson, 1900 [Indochina]

H. bialatus

30.

H. schlegelii (von Martens, 1861). EASTERN: Endemic to Japan.

Nipponihyria Starobogatov, 1970

128.

N. schlegelii *

Lamprotula Simpson, 1900

Lamprotula

L. plumbea (Chemnitz, 1795) [SE Asia?]

L. plumbea

31.

L. coreana (von Martens, 1886). EASTERN: Korea.

129.

L. coreana **

32.

L. gottschei (von Martens, 1894). EASTERN: Korea, south to the Yangtze; Japan?

130.

L. gottschei **

Pseudodon Gould, 1844

Pseudodon

P. inoscularis (Gould, 1844) [Indochina]

P. inoscularis

33.

P. omiensis (von Heimburg, 1884). EASTERN: Japan.

Obovalis Simpson, 1900

131.

O. omiensis *

Potomida Swainson, 1840

Potomida

34.

P. littoralis (Cuvier, 1798). WESTERN & SOUTHWESTERN: widespread from western and southern Europe and northern Africa, east to Syria.

132.

P. littoralis

133.

P. armeniacus (Kobelt, 1912)

134.

P. komarowi (Boettger, 1880)

Leguminaia Conrad, 1865

Leguminaia (s.s.)

35.

L. wheatleyi (Lea, 1862). SOUTHWESTERN: Lake Antioch and the Orontes of Syria, east to the Tigris-Eurphrates in Iraq.

135.

L. (L.) wheatleyi

36.

L. saulcyi (Bourguignat, 1852). SOUTHWESTERN: Syria.

136.

L. (L.) saulcyi

Leguminaia (Pseudoleguminaia) Germain, 1911

137.

L. (P.) chantrei Locard, 1883 *

Microcondylaea Vest, 1866

Leguminaia (Microcondylaea)

37.

M. compressa (Menke, 1830). WESTERN: eastern Mediterranean Europe.

138.

L. (M.) compressa

Pseudodontopsis Kobelt, 1913

Pseudodontopsis

38.

P. euphratica (Bourguignat, 1852). SOUTHWESTERN: Tigris-Euphrates Basin, Iraq.

139.

P. euphratica

Family MARGARITIFERIDAE

Margaritifera Schumacher, 1816

Margaritifera

39.

M. margaritifera (Linneaus, 1858). WESTERN: amphi-Atlantic distribution, northern Europe and the UK, west to eastern North America.

140.

M. margaritifera

141.

M. elongata (Lamarck, 1819)

142.

M. borealis Westerlund, 1871

40.

M. dahurica (Middendorff, 1850). EASTERN: the Amur Basin, Primorye and Sakhalin Island, eastern Russia.

Dahurinaia Starobogatov, 1970

143.

D. dahurica

144.

D. tiunovae Bogatov & Zatravkin, 1988

145.

D. ussuriensis Bogatov, Prozorova & Starobogatov, 2003

146.

D. prozorovaeBogatov & Starobog. in Bogatov et al., 2003

41.

M. laevis (Haas, 1910). EASTERN: Japan and north through Sakhalin Island and the southern Kurils.

Kurilinaia Bogatov & Zatravkin, 1988

149.

K. laevis

150.

K. kurilensis (Zatravkin & Starobogatov, 1984)

151.

K. zatravkini Bogatov, Prozorova & Starobogatov, 2003

42.

M. togakushiensis Kondo & Kobayashi, 2005. EASTERN: Japan.

152.

K. togakushiensis **

43.

M. middendorffi (Rosén, 1926). EASTERN: southern Kamchatka, eastern Russia.

153.

K. middendorffi

154.

K. kamchatica Bogatov, Prozorova & Starobogatov, 2003

44.

M. auricularia (Spengler, 1793). WESTERN: Iberian Peninsula, western Europe, and northern Africa.

Pseudunio Haas, 1910

155.

P. auricularia *

45.

M. homsensis (Lea, 1864). SOUTHWESTERN: Syria.

156.

P. homsensis **

Numerous key references are the basis for these tallies.

References
  • Falkner, G. 1994. Systematik vorderorientalischer Najaden als Vorstudie zur Bearbeitung archäologischer Funde. Forschungen und Berichte Zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte in Baden-Württemberg 53: 135-162.
  • Falkner, G., R.A. Bank & T. von Proschwitz. 2001. CLECOM-PROJECT: Check-list of the non-marine Molluscan species-group taxa of the states of Northern, Atlantic and Central Europe (CLECOM I). Heldia 4: 1-76.
  • Falkner, G., T.E.J. Ripken & M. Falkner. 2002. Mollusques Continentaux de France: Liste de Référence Annotée et Bibliographie. Patrimoines Naturels 52. Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Institut d’Ecologie et de Gestion de la Biodiversité, Paris. 350 pp.
  • Haas, F. 1940. A tentative classification of the Palearctic unionids. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Natural History 24: 115-141.
  • Haas, F. 1969. Superfamilia Unionacea. Das Tierreich 88. Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin. 663 pp.
  • Kantor Yu.I. & A.V. Sysoev. 2005. Katalog Mollyuskov Rossii i Sopredel’nykh Stran. KMK Scientific Press Ltd., Moscow. 627 pp.
  • Korniushin, A.V. 1998. Review of the studies on freshwater mollusc systematics carried out by the Russian taxonomic school. Bivalvia I. Malacological Review, Supplement 7: 65-82.
  • Starobogatov, Ya.I. 1970. Fauna Mollyuskov i Zoogeograficheskoe Raionirovanie Kontinental’nykh Vodoemov Zemnogo Shara. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Leningrad. 371 pp.
  • Starobogatov, Ya.I., L.A. Prozorova, V.V. Bogatov & E.M. Sayenko. 2004. Bivalvia. pp. 11-251. [in] S.J. Tsalolikhin, ed. Opredelitel’ Presnovodnykh Besnozvonochnykh Rossii i Sopredel’nykh Territorii 6. Nauka, St. Petersburg.
  • Zatravkin, M.N. 1983. Unionidae in the fauna of the USSR and their role as intermediate hosts of Trematoda and as eliminators cercariae. pp. 40-44. [in] I.M. Likharev, ed. Mollyuski: Sistematika, Ekologiya i Zakonomernosti Rasprostraneniya. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Leningrad. 262 pp.
 
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