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Page last updated
Sun 31 Oct 2021

The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves)

FM(U)otW(aolcb) is the web version of the MUSSEL Project Database. Follow the links to browse the data or use the custom Google search field. Either way, you win!

Cladomics pages are experimental — even more so than the rest of this site!

The purpose of the cladomics pages for each genus and family-group level taxon is to provide statistics and references indicating the extent to which published phylogenetic work supports the classification used here.

The Cladomics Summary provides an overview of the number of studies that have included terminal species representing this taxon as well as an indication of how frequently it has been recovered as monophyletic.

Following the summary, the available published clades representing the taxon are listed.

For more information, visit the Cladomics FARQ (frequently asked rhetorical questions) page.

Search the database pages:

Bivalvia | Unionoida | Unionoidea | Unionidae | Ambleminae | Lampsilini

genus Venustaconcha Frierson, 1927: cladomics
     5 valid species

Cladomics Summary

number of species: 5
number next lowest-taxon (species) (i.e., direct-child taxa): 5

analyzed in 71 cladogram(s) in 41 publications
maximum number of terminal species in an analysis: 4, mean: 1.17
maximum number of direct-child taxa in an analysis: 4, mean: 1.17

basic monophyly

number of cladograms that test basic monophyly (i.e., more than 1 included species): 9
maximum number of included species: 4, mean: 2.33
maximum number of direct-child taxa: 4, mean: 2.33
proportion of cladograms that support basic monophyly: 0.78

rigorous monophyly

number of cladograms that test rigorous monophyly: 9
(Rigorous monophyly refers to cladograms with terminal species representing more than one direct-child taxon and at least one rigorous, direct-child outgroup.)
maximum number of included species: 4, mean: 2.33
maximum number of direct-child taxa: 4, mean: 2.33
proportion of cladograms that support rigorous monophyly: 0.78

top monophyly publications

Lane et al., 2016, Gangloff et al., 2013, Campbell et al., 2005, Zanatta & Murphy, 2006, Campbell & Lydeard, 2012

Lane et al., 2016 ** Top Monophyly Test Publication **

fig. 3: [clade_id: 7591] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 4, direct-child terminals: 4
rigorous outgroups.: 2, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 2
(V_trabalis, V_trabalis, V_ellipsiformis, V_pleasii)


	  +-- V_ellipsiformis 3
	  |                    
	  +-- V_pleasii 4      
	--+                    
	  +-- V_trabalis 1     
	  |                    
	  +-- V_trabalis 2     
  

Campbell et al., 2005 ** Top Sister Group Test Publication **

fig. 1: [clade_id: 320] "Venustaconcha" + Truncilla + Leaunio + Sagittunio + Ligumia + Ortmanniana + Dromus + Hamiota + Lemiox + Obovaria + Cambarunio + Ellipsaria + Epioblasma + Ptychobranchus + Lampsilis + Medionidus + Villosa + Leptodea + Potamilus + Cyprogenia
spp. terminals: 2, direct-child terminals: 2
rigorous outgroups.: 47, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 23
((((L_fragilis, L_leptodon), (P_alatus, P_purpuratus)), (((S_nasutus, M_conradicus), (P_fasciolaris, V_ellipsiformis)), (M_acutissimus, (L_rimosus, (D_dromas, (C_aberti, C_stegaria)))))), ((E_lineolata, T_truncata), (V_villosa, (((O_olivaria, V_pleasii), ((O_unicolor, (O_arkansasensis, O_subrotunda)), (E_brevidens, (E_triquetra, (E_walkeri, (E_capsaeformis, E_walkeri)))))), (((L_recta, C_iris), (L_teres, (O_ligamentina, (L_siliquoidea, L_vanuxemensis)))), (((L_cardium, L_ovata), (O_pectorosa, L_ornata)), ((H_australis, (H_australis, H_subangulata)), (H_altilis, (H_altilis, H_perovalis), (H_altilis, H_perovalis)))))))))


	                             +-- L_fragilis 1      
	                          +--+                     
	                          |  +-- L_leptodon 2      
	              +-----------+                        
	              |           |  +-- P_alatus 3        
	              |           +--+                     
	              |              +-- P_purpuratus 4    
	              |                                    
	  +-----------+              +-- M_conradicus 6    
	  |           |           +--+                     
	  |           |           |  +-- S_nasutus 5       
	  |           |  +--------+                        
	  |           |  |        |  +-- P_fasciolaris 7   
	  |           |  |        +--+                     
	  |           +--+           +-- V_ellipsiformis 8 
	  |              |                                 
	  |              |  +----------- M_acutissimus 9   
	  |              +--+                              
	  |                 |  +-------- L_rimosus 10      
	  |                 +--+                           
	--+                    |  +----- D_dromas 11       
	  |                    +--+                        
	  |                       |  +-- C_aberti 12       
	  |                       +--+                     
	  |                          +-- C_stegaria 13     
	  |                                                
	  |                          +-- E_lineolata 14    
	  |  +-----------------------+                     
	  |  |                       +-- T_truncata 15     
	  |  |                                             
	  |  |  +----------------------- V_villosa 16      
	  |  |  |                                          
	  |  |  |                    +-- O_olivaria 17     
	  +--+  |     +--------------+                     
	     |  |     |              +-- V_pleasii 18      
	     |  |     |                                    
	     |  |  +--+           +----- O_unicolor 19     
	     |  |  |  |  +--------+                        
	     |  |  |  |  |        |  +-- O_arkansasensis 20
	     +--+  |  |  |        +--+                     
	        |  |  +--+           +-- O_subrotunda 21   
	        |  |     |                                 
	        |  |     |  +----------- E_brevidens 22    
	        |  |     +--+                              
	        |  |        |  +-------- E_triquetra 23    
	        |  |        +--+                           
	        |  |           |  +----- E_walkeri 24      
	        |  |           +--+                        
	        |  |              |  +-- E_capsaeformis 25 
	        +--+              +--+                     
	           |                 +-- E_walkeri 26      
	           |                                       
	           |                 +-- C_iris 28         
	           |        +--------+                     
	           |        |        +-- L_recta 27        
	           |     +--+                              
	           |     |  |  +-------- L_teres 29        
	           |     |  +--+                           
	           |     |     |  +----- O_ligamentina 30  
	           |     |     +--+                        
	           |     |        |  +-- L_siliquoidea 31  
	           |     |        +--+                     
	           |     |           +-- L_vanuxemensis 32 
	           +-----+                                 
	                 |           +-- L_cardium 33      
	                 |        +--+                     
	                 |        |  +-- L_ovata 34        
	                 |  +-----+                        
	                 |  |     |  +-- L_ornata 36       
	                 |  |     +--+                     
	                 |  |        +-- O_pectorosa 35    
	                 |  |                              
	                 +--+     +----- H_australis 37    
	                    |  +--+                        
	                    |  |  |  +-- H_australis 38    
	                    |  |  +--+                     
	                    |  |     +-- H_subangulata 39  
	                    +--+                           
	                       |  +----- H_altilis 40      
	                       |  |                        
	                       |  |  +-- H_altilis 41      
	                       +--+--+                     
	                          |  +-- H_perovalis 42    
	                          |                        
	                          |  +-- H_altilis 43      
	                          +--+                     
	                             +-- H_perovalis 44    
  

fig. 2: [clade_id: 547] "Venustaconcha" + Truncilla + Leaunio + Sagittunio + Ligumia + Ortmanniana + Dromus + Hamiota + Lemiox + Obovaria + Cambarunio + Ellipsaria + Epioblasma + Ptychobranchus + Lampsilis + Medionidus + Villosa + Leptodea + Potamilus + Cyprogenia
spp. terminals: 2, direct-child terminals: 2
rigorous outgroups.: 47, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 23
(S_nasutus, L_vanuxemensis, (E_lineolata, T_truncata), (L_teres, (O_ligamentina, L_siliquoidea)), (V_villosa, (L_recta, C_iris)), (O_pectorosa, (L_ornata, (L_cardium, L_ovata))), ((L_fragilis, L_leptodon), (P_alatus, P_purpuratus)), ((P_fasciolaris, V_ellipsiformis), (M_conradicus, (L_rimosus, M_acutissimus), (D_dromas, (C_aberti, C_stegaria)))), ((H_australis, (H_australis, H_subangulata)), ((H_altilis, H_perovalis), (H_altilis, (H_altilis, H_perovalis)))), (O_olivaria, V_pleasii, (O_unicolor, (O_arkansasensis, O_subrotunda)), ((E_brevidens, E_triquetra), (E_walkeri, (E_walkeri, E_capsaeformis)))))


	  +-------------- L_vanuxemensis 2  
	  |                                 
	  +-------------- S_nasutus 1       
	  |                                 
	  |           +-- E_lineolata 3     
	  +-----------+                     
	  |           +-- T_truncata 4      
	  |                                 
	  |        +----- V_villosa 8       
	  +--------+                        
	  |        |  +-- C_iris 10         
	  |        +--+                     
	  |           +-- L_recta 9         
	  |                                 
	  |        +----- L_teres 5         
	  +--------+                        
	  |        |  +-- L_siliquoidea 7   
	  |        +--+                     
	  |           +-- O_ligamentina 6   
	  |                                 
	  |     +-------- O_pectorosa 11    
	  +-----+                           
	  |     |  +----- L_ornata 12       
	  |     +--+                        
	  |        |  +-- L_cardium 13      
	  |        +--+                     
	  |           +-- L_ovata 14        
	  |                                 
	  |           +-- L_fragilis 15     
	  |        +--+                     
	  |        |  +-- L_leptodon 16     
	  +--------+                        
	  |        |  +-- P_alatus 17       
	  |        +--+                     
	  |           +-- P_purpuratus 18   
	  |                                 
	  |           +-- P_fasciolaris 19  
	--+  +--------+                     
	  |  |        +-- V_ellipsiformis 20
	  |  |                              
	  +--+  +-------- M_conradicus 21   
	  |  |  |                           
	  |  |  |     +-- L_rimosus 22      
	  |  +--+-----+                     
	  |     |     +-- M_acutissimus 23  
	  |     |                           
	  |     |  +----- D_dromas 24       
	  |     +--+                        
	  |        |  +-- C_aberti 25       
	  |        +--+                     
	  |           +-- C_stegaria 26     
	  |                                 
	  |        +----- H_australis 27    
	  |  +-----+                        
	  |  |     |  +-- H_australis 28    
	  |  |     +--+                     
	  |  |        +-- H_subangulata 29  
	  +--+                              
	  |  |        +-- H_altilis 30      
	  |  |  +-----+                     
	  |  |  |     +-- H_perovalis 31    
	  |  +--+                           
	  |     |  +----- H_altilis 32      
	  |     +--+                        
	  |        |  +-- H_altilis 33      
	  |        +--+                     
	  |           +-- H_perovalis 34    
	  |                                 
	  |  +----------- O_olivaria 35     
	  |  |                              
	  |  +----------- V_pleasii 36      
	  |  |                              
	  |  |     +----- O_unicolor 37     
	  |  +-----+                        
	  +--+     |  +-- O_arkansasensis 38
	     |     +--+                     
	     |        +-- O_subrotunda 39   
	     |                              
	     |        +-- E_brevidens 40    
	     |  +-----+                     
	     |  |     +-- E_triquetra 41    
	     +--+                           
	        |  +----- E_walkeri 42      
	        +--+                        
	           |  +-- E_capsaeformis 44 
	           +--+                     
	              +-- E_walkeri 43      
  

Gangloff et al., 2013

fig. 2: [clade_id: 6439] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 3, direct-child terminals: 3
rigorous outgroups.: 2, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 2
(V_pleasii, (V_ellipsiformis, V_pleasii))


	  +----- V_pleasii 1      
	--+                       
	  |  +-- V_ellipsiformis 2
	  +--+                    
	     +-- V_pleasii 3      
  

Zanatta & Harris, 2013

fig. 2: [clade_id: 6401] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 2, direct-child terminals: 2
rigorous outgroups.: 2, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 2
(V_pleasii, V_ellipsiformis)


	  +-- V_ellipsiformis 2
	--+                    
	  +-- V_pleasii 1      
  

Campbell & Lydeard, 2012

fig. 1-2: [clade_id: 5762] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 2, direct-child terminals: 2
rigorous outgroups.: 13, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 10
(V_ellipsiformis, V_pleasii)


	  +-- V_ellipsiformis 1
	--+                    
	  +-- V_pleasii 2      
  

fig. 3: [clade_id: 5906] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 2, direct-child terminals: 2
rigorous outgroups.: 13, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 10
(V_ellipsiformis, V_pleasii)


	  +-- V_ellipsiformis 1
	--+                    
	  +-- V_pleasii 2      
  

Zanatta & Murphy, 2006

fig. 1: [clade_id: 2949] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 2, direct-child terminals: 2
rigorous outgroups.: 47, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 23
(V_ellipsiformis, V_pleasii)


	  +-- V_ellipsiformis 1
	--+                    
	  +-- V_pleasii 2      
  

fig. 2: [clade_id: 3057] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 2, direct-child terminals: 2
rigorous outgroups.: 47, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 23
(V_ellipsiformis, V_pleasii)


	  +-- V_ellipsiformis 1
	--+                    
	  +-- V_pleasii 2      
  

Huang et al., 2019

fig. 2: [clade_id: 11578] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 13, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 12
unknown

fig. 3: [clade_id: 12666] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 6, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 5
unknown

fig. 3-M: [clade_id: 12735] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

fig. S3: [clade_id: 11907] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 13, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 12
unknown

fig. S4: [clade_id: 12357] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 13, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 12
unknown

Wang et al., 2018

fig. 2: [clade_id: 12750] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 4, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 4
unknown

Chase et al., 2018

fig. 4: [clade_id: 12872] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 11, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 7
unknown

Fukata & Iigo, 2020

fig. 1: [clade_id: 17060] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 7, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 4
unknown

Burzynski & Soroka, 2018

fig. 5a: [clade_id: 13472] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

Aunins et al., 2018

fig. 1: [clade_id: 13501] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 2, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 2
unknown

Wu et al., 2019

fig. 3: [clade_id: 13653] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 4, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 4
unknown

Wang et al., 2018

fig. 2: [clade_id: 13696] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 4, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 4
unknown

Wu et al., 2020

fig. 3: [clade_id: 17899] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 4, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 4
unknown

Chen et al., 2012

fig. 4: [clade_id: 6394] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

Huang et al., 2013

fig. 3: [clade_id: 6631] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 2, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 2
unknown

fig. 3-M: [clade_id: 6658] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 0, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 0
unknown

Wu et al., 2018

fig. 2: [clade_id: 18738] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

Breton et al., 2011

fig. 3: [clade_id: 4951] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 12, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 7
unknown

Soroka & Burzynski, 2018

fig. 3: [clade_id: 10187] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 0, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 0
unknown

fig. 3-M: [clade_id: 10200] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 0, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 0
unknown

Wu et al., 2020

fig. 3: [clade_id: 18810] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

Chapman et al., 2008

fig. 2: [clade_id: 4050] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 12, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 10
unknown

Burlakova et al., 2019

fig. 1: [clade_id: 14031] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 25, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 18
unknown

Guerra et al., 2017

fig. 2a: [clade_id: 9793] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 2, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 2
unknown

fig. 2a-M: [clade_id: 9818] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 0, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 0
unknown

fig. 2b: [clade_id: 9858] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 2, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 2
unknown

fig. 2b-M: [clade_id: 9884] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 0, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 0
unknown

Burzynski et al., 2017

fig. 1 bottom: [clade_id: 8303] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 0, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 0
unknown

fig. 1 top: [clade_id: 8278] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 0, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 0
unknown

Fonseca et al., 2016

fig. 1: [clade_id: 7967] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 2, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 2
unknown

fig. 1-M: [clade_id: 7991] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 0, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 0
unknown

Guerra et al., 2019

fig. 1: [clade_id: 19043] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 2, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 2
unknown

fig. 1-M: [clade_id: 18994] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

fig. 2: [clade_id: 19168] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 2, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 2
unknown

fig. 2-M: [clade_id: 19119] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

Xue et al., 2016

fig. 1: [clade_id: 7121] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

fig. 1-M: [clade_id: 7126] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 0, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 0
unknown

Teiga-Teixeira et al., 2020

fig. 1: [clade_id: 19289] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 7, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 4
unknown

Amaro et al., 2017

fig. 2: [clade_id: 7996] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 2, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 2
unknown

fig. 2-M: [clade_id: 8039] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

fig. 3A: [clade_id: 8047] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

fig. 3A-M: [clade_id: 8070] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 0, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 0
unknown

fig. 3B: [clade_id: 8089] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

fig. 3B-M: [clade_id: 8111] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 0, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 0
unknown

Froufe et al., 2015

fig. 1: [clade_id: 7181] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 0, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 0
unknown

fig. 1-M: [clade_id: 7204] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 0, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 0
unknown

Lopes-Lima et al., 2017

fig. 2: [clade_id: 8574] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 2, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 2
unknown

fig. 2-M: [clade_id: 8600] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 0, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 0
unknown

Wen et al., 2017

fig. 3: [clade_id: 8372] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 4, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 4
unknown

fig. 3-M: [clade_id: 8393] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

Plazzi et al., 2011

fig. 5: [clade_id: 4993] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 2, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 2
unknown

Froufe et al., 2019

fig. 3: [clade_id: 15284] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 4, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 4
unknown

fig. 3-M: [clade_id: 15331] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

fig. 4: [clade_id: 15369] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

fig. 6: [clade_id: 15413] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 4, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 4
unknown

Chapman et al., 2008

fig. 1: [clade_id: 3635] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 12, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 10
unknown

Smith et al., 2019

fig. 2: [clade_id: 15896] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 36, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 20
unknown

Huang et al., 2018

fig. 6: [clade_id: 10711] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 4, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 4
unknown

fig. 6-M: [clade_id: 10764] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

Sheng et al., 2014

fig. 2: [clade_id: 6756] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

Zhou et al., 2016

fig. 1: [clade_id: 7412] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 2, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 2
unknown

Wu et al., 2016

fig. 1: [clade_id: 7394] Venustaconcha
spp. terminals: 1, direct-child terminals: 1
rigorous outgroups.: 1, direct-child rigorous outgroups: 1
unknown

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