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Page last updated
Mon 13 Mar 2023

The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves)

FM(U)otW(aolcb) is the web version of the MUSSEL Project Database. Follow the links to browse the data or use the custom Google search field. Either way, you win!

Cladomics pages are experimental — even more so than the rest of this site!

The purpose of the cladomics pages for each genus and family-group level taxon is to provide statistics and references indicating the extent to which published phylogenetic work supports the classification used here.

The Cladomics Summary provides an overview of the number of studies that have included terminal species representing this taxon as well as an indication of how frequently it has been recovered as monophyletic.

Following the summary, the available published clades representing the taxon are listed.

For more information, visit the Cladomics FARQ (frequently asked rhetorical questions) page. Abbreviations for the various statistics are explained on the FARQ!

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Bivalvia | Unionoida | Unionoidea | Unionidae | Ambleminae | Lampsilini

genus Medionidus Simpson, 1900: cladomics
     7 valid species

Cladomics Summary

number of species = 7

analyzed in 19 cladograms in 12 publications
maximum number of terminal species in an analysis = 2, mean = 1.21

Basic Monophyly

number of cladograms that test basic monophyly (i.e., more than 1 included species) = 4
maximum number of included species = 2, mean = 2.0
proportion of cladograms that support basic monophyly = 0


Campbell et al., 2005, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 9 0 2 115 47 22 0.0

*** Top Monophyly Cladogram *** *** Top Sister-Group Cladogram ***

                             +-- Potamilus_fragilis         
                          +--+                              
                          |  +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
              +-----------+                                 
              |           |  +-- Potamilus_alatus           
              |           +--+                              
              |              +-- Potamilus_purpuratus       
              |                                             
  +-----------+              +-- Sagittunio_nasutus         
  |           |           +--+                              
  |           |           |  +-- Medionidus_conradicus **      
  |           |  +--------+                                 
  |           |  |        |  +-- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
  |           |  |        +--+                              
  |           +--+           +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  |              |                                          
  |              |  +----------- Medionidus_acutissimus **     
  |              +--+                                       
  |                 |  +-------- Lemiox_rimosus             
  |                 +--+                                    
--+                    |  +----- Dromus_dromas              
  |                    +--+                                 
  |                       |  +-- Cyprogenia_aberti          
  |                       +--+                              
  |                          +-- Cyprogenia_stegaria        
  |                                                         
  |                          +-- Ellipsaria_lineolata       
  |  +-----------------------+                              
  |  |                       +-- Truncilla_truncata         
  |  |                                                      
  |  |  +----------------------- Villosa_villosa            
  |  |  |                                                   
  |  |  |                    +-- Obovaria_olivaria          
  +--+  |     +--------------+                              
     |  |     |              +-- Venustaconcha_pleasii      
     |  |     |                                             
     |  |  +--+           +----- Obovaria_unicolor          
     |  |  |  |  +--------+                                 
     |  |  |  |  |        |  +-- Obovaria_arkansasensis     
     +--+  |  |  |        +--+                              
        |  |  +--+           +-- Obovaria_subrotunda        
        |  |     |                                          
        |  |     |  +----------- Epioblasma_brevidens       
        |  |     +--+                                       
        |  |        |  +-------- Epioblasma_triquetra       
        |  |        +--+                                    
        |  |           |  +----- Epioblasma_walkeri[2]      
        |  |           +--+                                 
        |  |              |  +-- Epioblasma_capsaeformis    
        +--+              +--+                              
           |                 +-- Epioblasma_walkeri[1]      
           |                                                
           |                 +-- Ligumia_recta              
           |        +--------+                              
           |        |        +-- Cambarunio_iris            
           |     +--+                                       
           |     |  |  +-------- Lampsilis_teres            
           |     |  +--+                                    
           |     |     |  +----- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
           |     |     +--+                                 
           |     |        |  +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      
           |     |        +--+                              
           |     |           +-- Leaunio_vanuxemensis       
           +-----+                                          
                 |           +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
                 |        +--+                              
                 |        |  +-- Lampsilis_ovata            
                 |  +-----+                                 
                 |  |     |  +-- Ortmanniana_pectorosa      
                 |  |     +--+                              
                 |  |        +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
                 |  |                                       
                 +--+     +----- Hamiota_australis[2]       
                    |  +--+                                 
                    |  |  |  +-- Hamiota_australis[1]       
                    |  |  +--+                              
                    |  |     +-- Hamiota_subangulata        
                    +--+                                    
                       |  +----- Hamiota_altilis[2]         
                       |  |                                 
                       |  |  +-- Hamiota_altilis[1]         
                       +--+--+                              
                          |  +-- Hamiota_perovalis[1]       
                          |                                 
                          |  +-- Hamiota_altilis[3]         
                          +--+                              
                             +-- Hamiota_perovalis[2]       

Campbell et al., 2005, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 6 0 2 113 47 22 6.0
  +-------------- Sagittunio_nasutus         
  |                                          
  +-------------- Leaunio_vanuxemensis       
  |                                          
  |           +-- Ellipsaria_lineolata       
  +-----------+                              
  |           +-- Truncilla_truncata         
  |                                          
  |        +----- Lampsilis_teres            
  +--------+                                 
  |        |  +-- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
  |        +--+                              
  |           +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      
  |                                          
  |        +----- Villosa_villosa            
  +--------+                                 
  |        |  +-- Ligumia_recta              
  |        +--+                              
  |           +-- Cambarunio_iris            
  |                                          
  |     +-------- Ortmanniana_pectorosa      
  +-----+                                    
  |     |  +----- Lampsilis_ornata           
  |     +--+                                 
  |        |  +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
  |        +--+                              
  |           +-- Lampsilis_ovata            
  |                                          
  |           +-- Potamilus_fragilis         
  |        +--+                              
  |        |  +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
  +--------+                                 
  |        |  +-- Potamilus_alatus           
  |        +--+                              
  |           +-- Potamilus_purpuratus       
  |                                          
  |           +-- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
--+  +--------+                              
  |  |        +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  |  |                                       
  +--+  +-------- Medionidus_conradicus **      
  |  |  |                                    
  |  |  |     +-- Lemiox_rimosus             
  |  +--+-----+                              
  |     |     +-- Medionidus_acutissimus **     
  |     |                                    
  |     |  +----- Dromus_dromas              
  |     +--+                                 
  |        |  +-- Cyprogenia_aberti          
  |        +--+                              
  |           +-- Cyprogenia_stegaria        
  |                                          
  |        +----- Hamiota_australis[2]       
  |  +-----+                                 
  |  |     |  +-- Hamiota_australis[1]       
  |  |     +--+                              
  |  |        +-- Hamiota_subangulata        
  +--+                                       
  |  |        +-- Hamiota_altilis[3]         
  |  |  +-----+                              
  |  |  |     +-- Hamiota_perovalis[2]       
  |  +--+                                    
  |     |  +----- Hamiota_altilis[2]         
  |     +--+                                 
  |        |  +-- Hamiota_altilis[1]         
  |        +--+                              
  |           +-- Hamiota_perovalis[1]       
  |                                          
  |  +----------- Obovaria_olivaria          
  |  |                                       
  |  +----------- Venustaconcha_pleasii      
  |  |                                       
  |  |     +----- Obovaria_unicolor          
  |  +-----+                                 
  +--+     |  +-- Obovaria_arkansasensis     
     |     +--+                              
     |        +-- Obovaria_subrotunda        
     |                                       
     |        +-- Epioblasma_brevidens       
     |  +-----+                              
     |  |     +-- Epioblasma_triquetra       
     +--+                                    
        |  +----- Epioblasma_walkeri[1]      
        +--+                                 
           |  +-- Epioblasma_walkeri[2]      
           +--+                              
              +-- Epioblasma_capsaeformis    

Zanatta & Murphy, 2006, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 6 0 2 55 47 22 4.0
                                +-- Medionidus_conradicus **      
                          +-----+                              
                          |     +-- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
                 +--------+                                    
                 |        |  +----- Medionidus_acutissimus **     
                 |        |  |                                 
                 |        +--+----- Lemiox_rimosus             
                 |           |                                 
  +--------------+           |  +-- Dromus_dromas              
  |              |           +--+                              
  |              |              +-- Cyprogenia_stegaria        
  |              |                                             
  |              |  +-------------- Potamilus_leptodon         
  |              |  |                                          
  |              +--+  +----------- Potamilus_fragilis         
  |                 |  |                                       
  |                 +--+        +-- Potamilus_alatus           
  |                    |  +-----+                              
  |                    |  |     +-- Potamilus_purpuratus       
  |                    +--+                                    
  |                       |  +----- Potamilus_inflatus         
--+                       +--+                                 
  |                          |  +-- Potamilus_ohiensis         
  |                          +--+                              
  |                             +-- Potamilus_amphichaenus     
  |                                                            
  |                          +----- Lampsilis_teres            
  |  +-----------------------+                                 
  |  |                       |  +-- Truncilla_truncata         
  |  |                       +--+                              
  |  |                          +-- Ellipsaria_lineolata       
  |  |                                                         
  |  |  +-------------------------- Leaunio_vanuxemensis       
  |  |  |                                                      
  +--+  |                       +-- Hamiota_australis          
     |  |                    +--+                              
     |  |                    |  +-- Hamiota_subangulata        
     |  |              +-----+                                 
     |  |              |     |  +-- Hamiota_altilis            
     |  |              |     +--+                              
     |  |              |        +-- Hamiota_perovalis          
     +--+  +-----------+                                       
        |  |           |        +-- Lampsilis_fasciola         
        |  |           |  +-----+                              
        |  |           |  |     +-- Ortmanniana_pectorosa      
        |  |           +--+                                    
        |  |              |  +----- Lampsilis_ornata           
        |  |              +--+                                 
        |  |                 |  +-- Lampsilis_ovata            
        |  |                 +--+                              
        +--+                    +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
           |                                                   
           |              +-------- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      
           |  +-----------+                                    
           |  |           |  +----- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
           |  |           +--+                                 
           |  |              |  +-- Cambarunio_iris            
           |  |              +--+                              
           |  |                 +-- Ligumia_recta              
           +--+                                                
              |                 +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
              |  +--------------+                              
              |  |              +-- Venustaconcha_pleasii      
              |  |                                             
              |  |        +-------- Obovaria_olivaria          
              +--+  +-----+                                    
                 |  |     |  +----- Obovaria_unicolor          
                 |  |     +--+                                 
                 |  |        |  +-- Obovaria_subrotunda        
                 +--+        +--+                              
                    |           +-- Obovaria_arkansasensis     
                    |                                          
                    |  +----------- Epioblasma_brevidens       
                    +--+                                       
                       |  +-------- Epioblasma_triquetra       
                       +--+                                    
                          |  +----- Epioblasma_rangiana        
                          +--+                                 
                             |  +-- Epioblasma_walkeri         
                             +--+                              
                                +-- Epioblasma_capsaeformis    

Zanatta & Murphy, 2006, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 3 0 2 56 47 22 6.0
                                   +----- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
                                +--+                                 
                                |  |  +-- Dromus_dromas              
                                |  +--+                              
  +-----------------------------+     +-- Cyprogenia_stegaria        
  |                             |                                    
  |                             |  +----- Medionidus_conradicus **      
  |                             +--+                                 
  |                                |  +-- Medionidus_acutissimus **     
  |                                +--+                              
  |                                   +-- Lemiox_rimosus             
  |                                                                  
  |  +----------------------------------- Sagittunio_nasutus         
  |  |                                                               
--+  |                    +-------------- Potamilus_leptodon         
  |  |                    |                                          
  |  +--------------------+  +----------- Potamilus_fragilis         
  |  |                    |  |                                       
  |  |                    +--+        +-- Potamilus_alatus           
  |  |                       |  +-----+                              
  |  |                       |  |     +-- Potamilus_purpuratus       
  |  |                       +--+                                    
  |  |                          |  +----- Potamilus_inflatus         
  |  |                          +--+                                 
  +--+                             |  +-- Potamilus_ohiensis         
     |                             +--+                              
     |                                +-- Potamilus_amphichaenus     
     |                                                               
     |                                +-- Truncilla_truncata         
     |  +-----------------------------+                              
     |  |                             +-- Ellipsaria_lineolata       
     |  |                                                            
     |  |                             +-- Ortmanniana_pectorosa      
     |  |                       +-----+                              
     |  |                       |     +-- Lampsilis_fasciola         
     |  |  +--------------------+                                    
     +--+  |                    |  +----- Lampsilis_ornata           
        |  |                    +--+                                 
        |  |                       |  +-- Lampsilis_ovata            
        |  |                       +--+                              
        |  |                          +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
        |  |                                                         
        |  |                          +-- Ligumia_recta              
        +--+                 +--------+                              
           |                 |        +-- Cambarunio_iris            
           |  +--------------+                                       
           |  |              |  +-------- Lampsilis_teres            
           |  |              |  |                                    
           |  |              +--+     +-- Hamiota_australis          
           |  |                 |  +--+                              
           |  |                 |  |  +-- Hamiota_subangulata        
           +--+                 +--+                                 
              |                    |  +-- Hamiota_altilis            
              |                    +--+                              
              |                       +-- Hamiota_perovalis          
              |                                                      
              |  +----------------------- Leaunio_vanuxemensis       
              |  |                                                   
              +--+  +-------------------- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
                 |  |                                                
                 |  |  +----------------- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      
                 +--+  |                                             
                    |  |  +-------------- Obovaria_olivaria          
                    |  |  |                                          
                    +--+  |           +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
                       |  +-----------+                              
                       |  |           +-- Venustaconcha_pleasii      
                       |  |                                          
                       +--+        +----- Obovaria_unicolor          
                          +--------+                                 
                          |        |  +-- Obovaria_subrotunda        
                          |        +--+                              
                          |           +-- Obovaria_arkansasensis     
                          |                                          
                          |  +----------- Epioblasma_brevidens       
                          +--+                                       
                             |  +-------- Epioblasma_triquetra       
                             +--+                                    
                                |  +----- Epioblasma_rangiana        
                                +--+                                 
                                   |  +-- Epioblasma_walkeri         
                                   +--+                              
                                      +-- Epioblasma_capsaeformis    

Lydeard et al., 1996, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 26 8 6 --
  +----------- Ptychobranchus_subtentus
  |                                    
--+  +-------- Medionidus_conradicus **   
  |  |                                 
  +--+  +----- Potamilus_purpuratus    
     |  |                              
     |  |  +-- Ellipsaria_lineolata    
     +--+--+                           
        |  +-- Villosa_delumbis        
        |                              
        |  +-- Lampsilis_teres         
        +--+                           
           +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea   

Lydeard et al., 1996, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 27 8 6 --
  +----------------------- Obliquaria_reflexa      
--+                                                
  |  +-------------------- Medionidus_conradicus **   
  +--+                                             
     |  +----------------- Ptychobranchus_subtentus
     +--+                                          
        |  +-------------- Potamilus_fragilis      
        +--+                                       
           |  +----------- Potamilus_purpuratus    
           +--+                                    
              |  +-------- Ellipsaria_lineolata    
              +--+                                 
                 |  +----- Villosa_delumbis        
                 +--+                              
                    |  +-- Lampsilis_teres         
                    +--+                           
                       +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea   

Huang et al., 2002, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 33 7 6 --
  +----------------- Medionidus_conradicus **   
--+                                          
  |  +-------------- Potamilus_fragilis      
  +--+                                       
     |  +----------- Ptychobranchus_subtentus
     +--+                                    
        |  +-------- Potamilus_purpuratus    
        +--+                                 
           |  +----- Lampsilis_teres         
           +--+                              
              |  +-- Villosa_delumbis        
              +--+                           
                 +-- Ellipsaria_lineolata    

Huang et al., 2002, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 33 7 6 --
-- Medionidus_conradicus

Serb et al., 2003, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 29 6 5 --
  +----- Medionidus_conradicus **
--+                           
  |  +-- Dromus_dromas        
  +--+                        
     +-- Cyprogenia_aberti    

Serb et al., 2003, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 29 6 5 --
  +----- Medionidus_conradicus **
--+                           
  |  +-- Dromus_dromas        
  +--+                        
     +-- Cyprogenia_aberti    

Krebs et al., 2003, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 33 10 7 --
  +----- Ptychobranchus_subtentus
--+                              
  |  +-- Potamilus_fragilis      
  +--+                           
     +-- Medionidus_conradicus **   

Turner et al., 2000, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 15 10 2 --
  +-------------------- Medionidus_conradicus **   
  |                                             
--+  +----------------- Lampsilis_teres         
  |  |                                          
  |  +----------------- Villosa_delumbis        
  +--+                                          
     |              +-- Lampsilis_satura        
     |  +-----------+                           
     |  |           +-- Lampsilis_cardium       
     +--+                                       
        |  +----------- Lampsilis_reeveiana     
        |  |                                    
        +--+  +-------- Lampsilis_hydiana[1]    
           |  |                                 
           +--+-------- Lampsilis_hydiana[2]    
              |                                 
              |  +----- Lampsilis_siliquoidea[2]
              +--+                              
                 |  +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea[1]
                 +--+                           
                    +-- Lampsilis_powellii      

Grobler et al., 2011, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 16 15 9 --
  +----------- Lemiox_rimosus       
--+                                 
  |  +-------- Medionidus_conradicus **
  +--+                              
     |  +----- Dromus_dromas        
     +--+                           
        |  +-- Cyprogenia_stegaria  
        +--+                        
           +-- Cyprogenia_aberti    

Roe, 2013, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 11 11 5 --
  +----------------------- Obliquaria_reflexa            
  |                                                      
  |                    +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea         
  +--------------------+                                 
--+                    +-- Lampsilis_ornata              
  |                                                      
  |  +-------------------- Medionidus_conradicus **         
  |  |                                                   
  +--+                 +-- Cyprogenia_aberti             
     |  +--------------+                                 
     |  |              +-- Dromus_dromas                 
     +--+                                                
        |  +-------------- Ptychobranchus_subtentus      
        +--+                                             
           |  +----------- Ptychobranchus_jonesi         
           +--+                                          
              |  +-------- Ptychobranchus_greenii        
              +--+                                       
                 |  +----- Ptychobranchus_occidentalis[2]
                 +--+                                    
                    |  +-- Ptychobranchus_occidentalis[1]
                    +--+                                 
                       +-- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris    

Huang et al., 2019, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 198 13 11 --
  +----------- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  |                                       
  +----------- Leaunio_lienosus           
  |                                       
  |        +-- Ellipsaria_lineolata       
  +--------+                              
--+        +-- Truncilla_truncata         
  |                                       
  |        +-- Medionidus_conradicus **      
  +--------+                              
  |        +-- Ptychobranchus_subtentus   
  |                                       
  |  +-------- Cambarunio_iris            
  +--+                                    
     |  +----- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
     +--+                                 
        |  +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
        +--+                              
           +-- Lampsilis_ornata           

Huang et al., 2019, fig. S3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 196 13 11 --
                 +-- Medionidus_conradicus **      
  +--------------+                              
  |              +-- Ptychobranchus_subtentus   
  |                                             
--+              +-- Ellipsaria_lineolata       
  |  +-----------+                              
  |  |           +-- Truncilla_truncata         
  +--+                                          
     |  +----------- Leaunio_lienosus           
     |  |                                       
     +--+        +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
        |  +-----+                              
        |  |     +-- Cambarunio_iris            
        +--+                                    
           |  +----- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
           +--+                                 
              |  +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
              +--+                              
                 +-- Lampsilis_ornata           

Huang et al., 2019, fig. S4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 198 13 11 --
  +-------- Ellipsaria_lineolata       
  |                                    
  +-------- Potamilus_leptodon         
  |                                    
  +-------- Medionidus_conradicus **      
  |                                    
  +-------- Potamilus_alatus           
  |                                    
  +-------- Ptychobranchus_subtentus   
--+                                    
  +-------- Truncilla_truncata         
  |                                    
  +-------- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  |                                    
  +-------- Cambarunio_iris            
  |                                    
  +-------- Leaunio_lienosus           
  |                                    
  |  +----- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
  +--+                                 
     |  +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
     +--+                              
        +-- Lampsilis_ornata           

Burlakova et al., 2019, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 32 25 17 --
              +-- Potamilus_fragilis    
  +-----------+                         
  |           +-- Potamilus_metnecktayi 
  |                                     
  |        +----- Medionidus_acutissimus **
  +--------+                            
  |        |  +-- Lemiox_rimosus        
  |        +--+                         
  |           +-- Dromus_dromas         
  |                                     
  |        +----- Ellipsaria_lineolata  
  |        |                            
  +--------+  +-- Truncilla_cognata     
  |        |  |                         
--+        |  +-- Truncilla_donaciformis
  |        +--+                         
  |           +-- Truncilla_macrodon    
  |           |                         
  |           +-- Truncilla_truncata    
  |                                     
  |  +----------- Cambarunio_simus      
  |  |                                  
  |  +----------- Leaunio_lienosus      
  |  |                                  
  |  +----------- Villosa_villosa       
  |  |                                  
  |  |        +-- Sagittunio_nasutus    
  |  +--------+                         
  +--+        +-- Lampsilis_ovata       
     |                                  
     |     +----- Venustaconcha_pleasii 
     +-----+                            
     |     |  +-- Epioblasma_rangiana   
     |     +--+                         
     |        +-- Obovaria_unicolor     
     |                                  
     |  +-------- Lampsilis_teres       
     +--+                               
        |  +----- Lampsilis_siliquoidea 
        +--+                            
           |  +-- Lampsilis_hydiana     
           +--+                         
              +-- Lampsilis_straminea   

Smith et al., 2019, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 41 36 19 --
     +-- Medionidus_conradicus **     
  +--+                             
  |  +-- Lemiox_rimosus            
--+                                
  |  +-- Cyprogenia_stegaria       
  +--+                             
     +-- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris

Page updated: 09:30:46 Mon 13 Mar 2023

 
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