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Page last updated
Sun 31 Oct 2021

The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves)

FM(U)otW(aolcb) is the web version of the MUSSEL Project Database. Follow the links to browse the data or use the custom Google search field. Either way, you win!

The nominal species (available and otherwise) in this synonymy are listed by usage rather than strictly by publication date. The primary sorting order is by the most recent year (since 1969) that the species name was treated as valid, and then nominal species are sorted secondarily by publication year.

The taxonomic history of the valid species (since 1900) is listed at the bottom of the page.

Search the database pages:

Unionoida | Unionoidea | Unionidae | Ambleminae | Pleurobemini | Elliptio

species Elliptio congaraea (Lea, 1831): nominal species
     15 specimens available.

Unio congaraeus Lea, 1831
Lea, 1831, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 4 [O. 1]: 72 [82], pl. 6, fig. 4 [as ‘congaræus’].
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_85693, Congaree R., Columbia, S.C.

Unio congaraeusLea (1831)
Unio congareusRavenel (1834)
Unio congaræusJay (1835), Ferussac (1835), Conrad (1836), Hanley (1843), Conrad (1853), Sowerby (1867), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margarita (Unio) congaraeusLea (1836)
Margarita (Unio) congaræusLea (1838)
Margaron (Unio) congaræusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Niäa) congaraeusAdams & Adams (1857)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) congaraeusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeusFrierson (1927), Haas (1969), Burch (1975)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeaR.I. Johnson (1970)
Elliptio congaraeaDavis (1984), Turgeon et al. (1988), Williams et al. (1993), IUCN (1996), ..., Williams et al. (2017), Perkins et al. (2017), Graf & Cummings (2021), Bieler (2021)
Elliptio congareaHaag (2012)

Unio waccamawensis Lea, 1863
Lea, 1863, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 15: 193.
Lea, 1866, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6 [O. 11]: 16 [20], pl. 5, fig. 14.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_84437, Waccamaw Lake, N. Carolina.

Unio waccamawensisLea (1863), Lea (1866), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margaron (Unio) waccamawensisLea (1870)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) waccamawensisSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio (s.s.) waccamawensisFrierson (1927), Haas (1969), R.I. Johnson (1970), Burch (1975)
Elliptio waccamawensisDavis et al. (1981), Davis & Fuller (1981), Davis (1984), Turgeon et al. (1988), ..., IUCN (2011), Haag (2012), ITIS (2012), Inoue et al. (2018)
Elliptio congaraeaWilliams et al. (2017), Graf & Cummings (2021)

Unio lecontianus Lea, 1838
Lea, 1836, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 23. [nomen nudum]
Lea, 1838, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 6 [O. 2]: 40, pl. 12, fig. 35.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_84852, Canoochie R., Liberty Co., Ga.

Unio lecontianusLea (1838), Hanley (1843), Conrad (1853), Sowerby (1866), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margarita (Unio) lecontianusLea (1836), Lea (1838)
Margaron (Unio) lecontianusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Hyridella) lecontianusAdams & Adams (1857)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) lecontianusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio (s.s.) lecontianusFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeaR.I. Johnson (1970)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeusBurch (1975)

Unio pusillus Lea, 1840
Lea, 1840, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 1: 286.
Lea, 1842, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 8 [O. 3]: 220 [58], pl. 18, fig. 36.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_85241, Ogeechee R., Georgia.

Unio pusillusLea (1840), Conrad (1853), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margaron (Unio) pusillusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Hyridella) pusillusAdams & Adams (1857)
Unio pussilusKüster (1861)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) pusillusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio pusillusOrtmann & Walker (1922)
Elliptio (s.s.) pusillusFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeaR.I. Johnson (1970)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeusBurch (1975)

Unio forbesianus Lea, 1852
Lea, 1852, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 5: 251. [nomen nudum]
Lea, 1852, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 10 [O. 5]: 264 [20], pl. 16, fig. 17.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_84542, Savannah R., Ga.

Unio forbesianusLea (1852), Conrad (1853), Küster (1861), Sowerby (1868), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margaron (Unio) forbesianusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Lampsilis) forbesianusAdams & Adams (1857)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) forbesianusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio (s.s.) forbesianusFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeaR.I. Johnson (1970)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeusBurch (1975)

Unio dorsatus Lea, 1868
Lea, 1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 20: 160.
Lea, 1868, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6 [O. 12]: 300 [60], pl. 45, fig. 112.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_84494, Catawba R., N.C.

Unio dorsatusLea (1868), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margaron (Unio) dorsatusLea (1870)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) dorsatusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio (s.s.) dorsatusFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeaR.I. Johnson (1970)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeusBurch (1975)

Unio congareus Ravenel, 1834
‘Lea’ of Authors.
Ravenel, 1834, Cat. Rec. Shells: 6.
de Gregorio, 1914, Il Nat. Siciliano 2: 57.
Haag, 2012, N. Amer. Freshw. Mussels: 73 [as ‘Elliptio congarea’].
(error for Unio congaraeus Lea, 1831)

Unio congareusRavenel (1834)

Unio fulvus Lea, 1834
Lea, 1834, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 5 [O. 1]: 96 [208], pl. 13, fig. 39.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_85679, S.C.

Unio fulvusLea (1834), Ferussac (1835), Hanley (1843), Sowerby (1868), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margarita (Unio) fulvusLea (1836), Lea (1838)
Margaron (Unio) fulvusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio icterinusConrad (1853)
Unio (Niäa) fulvusAdams & Adams (1857)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) congaraeusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeusFrierson (1927), Haas (1969), Burch (1975)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeaR.I. Johnson (1970)

Unio congaraeus Conrad, 1836
‘Lea’ Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(3): 27, pl. 12, fig. 1 [as ‘congaræus’].
(reference to Unio congaraeus Lea, 1831)

Unio congaraeusConrad (1836)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) congaraeusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio (s.s.) forbesianusFrierson (1927)

Unio planilateris Conrad, 1838
Conrad, 1838, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(11): back cover.
Conrad, 1840, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(12): 103, pl. 57, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 255 [as ‘planitaleris’].

Unio planilaterisConrad (1838), Conrad (1840)
Margaron (Unio) complanatusLea (1852)
Unio planitalerisConrad (1853)
Margaron (Unio) planilaterusLea (1870)
Unio planilaterusB.H. Wright (1888)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) complanatusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio (s.s.) complanatusFrierson (1927)
Elliptio (s.s.) violaceus violaceusHaas (1969)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeaR.I. Johnson (1970)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeusBurch (1975)

Unio buxeus Lea, 1852
Lea, 1852, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 10 [O. 5]: 261 [17], pl. 15, fig. 13.
Lea, 1852, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 5: 251. [nomen nudum]
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_85153, Abbeville, S Carolina.

Unio buxeusLea (1852), Conrad (1853), B.H. Wright (1888), Vanatta (1915)
Margaron (Unio) buxeusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Hyridella) buxeusAdams & Adams (1857)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) pusillusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio pusillusOrtmann & Walker (1922)
Elliptio (s.s.) pusillusFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeaR.I. Johnson (1970)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeusBurch (1975)

Unio gibbesianus Lea, 1852
Lea, 1852, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 10 [O. 5]: 254 [10], pl. 12, fig. 2.
Lea, 1852, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 5: 251. [nomen nudum]
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_85685, Abbeville, S.C.

Unio gibbesianusLea (1852), Conrad (1853), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margaron (Unio) gibbesianusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Niäa) gibbesianusAdams & Adams (1857)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) sordidusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeusFrierson (1927), Burch (1975)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeaR.I. Johnson (1970)

Unio moussonianus Lea, 1852
Lea, 1852, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 10 [O. 5]: 268 [24], pl. 118, fig. 22.
Lea, 1852, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 5: 251. [nomen nudum]
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_85168, Georgia.

Unio moussonianusLea (1852), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margaron (Unio) moussonianusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio moussianusConrad (1853)
Unio (Hyridella) moussonianusAdams & Adams (1857)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) forbesianusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio (s.s.) forbesianusFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeaR.I. Johnson (1970)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeusBurch (1975)

Unio planilaterus Lea, 1852
‘Conrad’ of Authors.
Lea, 1852, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 32.
Lea, 1870, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 51.
B.H. Wright, 1888, Check List N. Amer. Unionidae etc.: [4].
Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 722.
Simpson, 1914, Descr. Cat. Naiades: 653.
(error for Unio planilateris Conrad, 1838)

Unio planilaterusLea (1852)

Unio rufusculus Lea, 1852
Lea, 1852, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 10 [O. 5]: 258, pl. 14, fig. 7.
Lea, 1852, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 5: 252. [nomen nudum]
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_85683, Abbeville, S.C.

Unio rufusculusLea (1852), Conrad (1853), Sowerby (1868), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margaron (Unio) rufusculusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Niäa) rufusculusAdams & Adams (1857)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) complanatusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeusFrierson (1927), Burch (1975)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeaR.I. Johnson (1970)

Unio sordidis Lea, 1852
Lea, 1852, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 10 [O. 5]: 254 [10].
(incorrect original spelling of Unio sordidus Lea, 1852)

Unio sordidisLea (1852)
Elliptio congaraeaBieler (2021)

Unio sordidus Lea, 1852
Lea, 1852, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 10 [O. 5]: 254 [10], pl. 12, fig. 1 [as ‘sordidis’].
Lea, 1852, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 5: 252. [nomen nudum]
(correct name for Unio sordidis Lea, 1852)
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_85688, Abbeville, S.C.

Unio sordidusLea (1852), Conrad (1853), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margaron (Unio) sordidusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Niäa) sordidusAdams & Adams (1857)
Unio purpureusSowerby (1868)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) sordidusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio (s.s.) complanatusFrierson (1927)
Elliptio (s.s.) violaceus violaceusHaas (1969)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeaR.I. Johnson (1970)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeusBurch (1975)
Elliptio congaraeaBieler (2021)

Unio moussianus Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 252.
(error for Unio moussonianus Lea, 1852)

Unio moussianusConrad (1853)

Unio planitaleris Conrad, 1853
‘Con.’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 255.
(error for Unio planilateris Conrad, 1838)

Unio planitalerisConrad (1853)

Unio corvus Lea, 1859
Lea, 1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 11: 112.
Lea, 1859, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 4 [O. 7]: 217 [35], pl. 28, fig. 97.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_84539, Buckhead Cr., Burke Co., Ga.

Unio corvusLea (1859), Sowerby (1868), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margaron (Unio) corvusLea (1870)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) forbesianusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio (s.s.) pusillusFrierson (1927)
Elliptio (s.s.) forbesianusHaas (1969)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeaR.I. Johnson (1970)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeusBurch (1975)

Unio pussilus Küster, 1861
‘Lea’ Küster, 1861, Conchyl. Cab. 9(2): 197.
(error for Unio pusillus Lea, 1840)

Unio pussilusKüster (1861)

Unio vestitus Lea, 1862
Lea, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 13: 393.
Lea, 1862, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 5 [O. 9]: 189 [11], pl. 25, fig. 259.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_85332, Ogeechee R., Georgia.

Unio vestitusLea (1862), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margaron (Unio) vestitusLea (1870)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) forbesianusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio (s.s.) pusillusFrierson (1927)
Elliptio (s.s.) forbesianusHaas (1969)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeaR.I. Johnson (1970)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeusBurch (1975)

Unio strumosus Lea, 1872
Lea, 1872, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 24: 158.
Lea, 1874, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 8 [O. 13]: 57 [61], pl. 19, fig. 55.
Lea, 1874, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 25: 423.
Type(s): FIGURED SYNTYPE USNM_85755, Yadkin R., N.C.

Unio strumosusLea (1872), B.H. Wright (1888)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) strumosusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Elliptio (s.s.) complanatusFrierson (1927)
Elliptio (s.s.) violaceus violaceusHaas (1969)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeaR.I. Johnson (1970)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeusBurch (1975)

Unio planilateralis Frierson, 1927
‘Conrad’ of Authors.
Frierson, 1927, Check List N. Amer. Naiades: 31.
Haas, 1969, Das Tierreich 88: 233.
(error for Unio planilateris Conrad, 1838)

Unio planilateralisFrierson (1927)

Taxonomic History (since 1900)

Unio (sec. Elliptio) congaraeusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) lecontianusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) complanatusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) pusillusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) forbesianusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) sordidusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) waccamawensisSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) dorsatusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (sec. Elliptio) strumosusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio buxeusVanatta (1915)
Elliptio pusillusOrtmann & Walker (1922)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeusFrierson (1927), Haas (1969), Burch (1975)
Elliptio (s.s.) forbesianusFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Elliptio (s.s.) lecontianusFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Elliptio (s.s.) complanatusFrierson (1927)
Elliptio (s.s.) pusillusFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Elliptio (s.s.) waccamawensisFrierson (1927), Haas (1969), R.I. Johnson (1970), Burch (1975)
Elliptio (s.s.) dorsatusFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Unio planilateralisFrierson (1927)
Elliptio (s.s.) violaceus violaceusHaas (1969)
Elliptio (s.s.) congaraeaR.I. Johnson (1970)
Elliptio waccamawensisDavis et al. (1981), Davis & Fuller (1981), Davis (1984), Turgeon et al. (1988), ..., IUCN (2011), Haag (2012), ITIS (2012), Inoue et al. (2018)
Elliptio congaraeaDavis (1984), Turgeon et al. (1988), Williams et al. (1993), IUCN (1996), ..., Williams et al. (2017), Perkins et al. (2017), Graf & Cummings (2021), Bieler (2021)
Elliptio congareaHaag (2012)

Page updated: 17:23:17 Sun 31 Oct 2021

 
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