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Page last updated
Tue 08 Oct 2019

The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves)

FM(U)otW(aolcb) is the web version of the MUSSEL Project Database. Follow the links to browse the data or use the custom Google search field. Either way, you win!

This page documents data for Conrad (1853), such as genera and species attributed to that publication (including known misspellings, misidentifications, and other unavailable names) as well as taxonomic opinions, if available. Taxonomic opinions refer to uses of genera and species as valid and invalid in that work.

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Publication information

Conrad, T.A. 1853. A synopsis of the family of Naïades of North America, with notes, and a table of some of the genera and sub-genera of the family, according to their geographical distribution, and descriptions of genera and sub-genera. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6: 243-269.

Click here for online access.

Attributed Genus Names

Pleiodon Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 7(1): 178.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 267.
(renamed Pliodon Agassiz, 1846)
Type species: Pleiodon macmurtriei Conrad, 1834 (monotypy) = Pleiodon ovatus

Plectomerus Conrad, 1853
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 260.
Type species: Unio trapezoides Lea, 1831 (sub. desig. by Ortmann & Walker, 1922: 9) = Plectomerus dombeyanus

Uniomerus Conrad, 1853
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 268.
(intro'd as sub-gen. of Unio Retzius, 1788)
Type species: Unio declivis Say, 1831 (sub. desig. by Frierson, 1927: 34, 10) = Uniomerus declivis

Caelatura Conrad, 1853
‘Conrad’ of Authors.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 267 [as ‘Cælatura’].
Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 820 [as ‘Cælatura’].
Pallary, 1909, Mém. Inst. Égypte 6: 76.
Simpson, 1914, Descr. Cat. Naiades: 1019.
Germain, 1918, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 24: 41.
Germain, 1919, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 25: 122.
Germain, 1921, Faun. malac. Terr. e Fluv. Iles Mascareignes: 403.
Pallary, 1924, Mém. Inst. Égypte 7 (n.s.): 42.
Pilsbry & Bequaert, 1927, Bull. AMNH 53: 399.
Haas, 1927, Senckenbergiana 9: 21.
Haas, 1929, Senckenbergiana 11: 111.
Thiele, 1934, Handb. Syst. Weichtierk. 3: 1248.
Haas, 1936, Abh. Senckenb. Naturf. Ges. 431: 54.
Dartevelle & Schwetz, 1937, Ann. Soc. Roy. Zool. Belgique 68: 60.
Haas, 1940, Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 24: 140.
Modell, 1942, Arch. Moll. 74(5/6): 190.
Leloup, 1950, Res. Sci. Explor. Hydrob. Lac Tanganyika (1946-1947) 3: 40.
Mongin, 1963, Mém. Soc. Géol. France 96: 10.
Modell, 1964, Arch. Moll. 93: 116.
Mandahl-Barth, 1968, Expl. Hydrobiol. Bangweulu-Luapula 12: 51.
Starobogatov, 1970, Fauna Moll. Continent.: 64.
Fischer-Piette & Métivier, 1974, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 133: 10.
Appleton, 1979, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 77(9): 154.
Kenmuir, 1980, Trans. Zimbabwe Sci. Assoc. 60(2): 7.
Curtis & Appleton, 1987, Jour. SWA Sci. Soc. 40-41: 50.
Ibrahim et al., 1999, EEAA Nat. Biodiv. Unit (10): 74.
Millard, 2001, Class. Moll. (3): 1061.
(incorrect original spelling of Coelatura Conrad, 1853)

Parreysia Conrad, 1853
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 267.
Type species: Unio multidentatus Philippi, 1847 (orig. desig.) = Parreysia corrugata

Lanceolaria Conrad, 1853
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 267.
(intro'd as sub-gen. of Unio Retzius, 1788)
Type species: Unio grayanus Lea, 1834 (orig. desig.) = Lanceolaria grayii

Corrugaria Conrad, 1853
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 267.
(intro'd as sub-gen. of Unio Retzius, 1788)

Monodontina Conrad, 1853
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 269.
Type species: Margaritana vondembuschiana Lea, 1840 (orig. desig.) = Monodontina vondembuschiana

Eurinea Conrad, 1853
‘Raf., Agas.’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 267.
(error for Eurynia Rafinesque, 1820)

Glebula Conrad, 1853
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 268.
(intro'd as sub-gen. of Unio Retzius, 1788)
Type species: Unio rotundata Lamarck, 1819 (orig. desig.) = Glebula rotundata

Iridella Conrad, 1853
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 267.

Coelatura Conrad, 1853
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 268 [as ‘Cœlatura’].
(correct name for Caelatura Conrad, 1853)
Type species: Unio aegyptiacus Cailliaud, 1827 (monotypy) = Coelatura aegyptiaca

Hyriopsis Conrad, 1853
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 267.
Type species: Unio delphinus Gruner, 1841 (monotypy) = Hyriopsis bialata

Nodularia Conrad, 1853
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 267.
(renamed Nodularidia Cockereli, 1901)
Type species: Unio douglasiae Griffith & Pidgeon, 1833 (orig. desig.) = Nodularia douglasiae

Cucumaria Conrad, 1853
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 267.
(homonym of Blainville, 1830 [Echin.])
Type species: Unio cucumoides Lea, 1840 (orig. desig.) = Cucumerunio novaehollandiae

Attributed Species Names

Anodonta pennsylvanica Stark, 1828
‘Lamarck’ of Authors.
Stark, 1828, Elements Nat. Hist. 2: 89.
Lea, 1836, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 50.
Lea, 1852, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 49.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 263.
Sowerby, 1867, Conch. Icon. 17: pl. 11, sp. 30.
Lea, 1870, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 79.
Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 618.
Ortmann & Walker, 1922, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. (112): 40.
Frierson, 1927, Check List N. Amer. Naiades: 22 [as ‘Strophitus undulatus-pennsylvanicus’].
Haas, 1969, Das Tierreich 88: 373 [as ‘Strophitus undulatus pennsylvanicus’].
(error for Anodonta pensylvanica Lamarck, 1819)

Unio metanever Lea, 1829
‘Rafinesque’ of Authors.
Lea, 1829, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 3 [O. 1]: 418.
Jay, 1835, Cat. Rec. Shells: 17.
Hanley, 1843, Illustr. Descr. Cat. Rec. Bivalve Shells: 179.
Agassiz, 1852, Arch. Naturg. 18(1): 48.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 252.
Mörch, 1853, Cat. Conch. Yoldi 2: 44.
(reference to Obliquaria (Quadrula) metanevra Rafinesque, 1820)

Unio arcus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, Amer. J. Sci. 25(2): 340, pl. 1, fig. 8.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 245.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE ANSP_56784, Alabama.

Unio infucatus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 45, pl. 3, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 250.

Unio penitus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 33, pl. 5, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 254.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE ANSP_59860, Alabama.

Unio trabalis Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 27, pl. 3, fig. 5.
Conrad, 1840, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(12): 110, pl. 60, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 259.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE ANSP_56481, Flint River, Ala.

Unio oviformis Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 46, pl. 3, fig. 6.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 254.

Unio furvus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 39, pl. 6, fig. 3.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 250.

Unio perovatus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, Amer. J. Sci. 25(2): 338, pl. 1, fig. 3.
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 47, pl. 2, fig. 3.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 254.
Type(s): LECTOTYPE ANSP_129864, [no locality available - North America].

Unio rubellus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 38, pl. 6, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 257.

Unio prasinus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 44, pl. 3, fig.1.
Conrad, 1837, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(9): 79, pl. 44, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 255.

Unio modioliformis Lea, 1834
‘Say’ of Authors.
Lea, 1834, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 5 [O. 1]: 89.
Conrad, 1835, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(1): 5.
Ferussac, 1835, Mag. Zool. 5: 28.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 246.
(intro'd as syn of Unio clava Lamarck, 1819)

Unio greenii Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 32, pl. 4, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1837, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(8): 69, pl. 38, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 250.
Type(s): SYNTYPE USNM_84950, [Black Warrior River] Alabama.

Unio maculatus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 30, pl. 4, fig. 4.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 252.
(homonym of Unio (Elliptio) nigra var. maculata Rafinesque, 1820; renamed Pleurobema conradi Vanatta, 1915)

Unio cor Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 28, pl. 3, fig. 3.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 247.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE MCZ_178792, Elk and Flint Rivers, Alabama.

Unio caelatus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, Amer. J. Sci. 25(2): 338, pl. 1, fig. 1 [as ‘cœlatus’].
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 29, pl. 3, fig. 4 [as ‘cælatus’].
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 245 [as ‘cælatus’].
(correct name for Unio coelatus Conrad, 1834)

Unio torulosus Conrad, 1834
‘Rafinesque’ Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 72.
‘Raf.’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 259.
(reference to Amblema torulosa Rafinesque, 1820)

Unio nervosa Conrad, 1834
‘Rafinesque’ of Authors.
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 70.
Say, 1834, Amer. Conch. 6: ??.
Lapham, 1852, Trans. WI Agri. Soc. 2: 369.
Agassiz, 1852, Arch. Naturg. 18(1): 48.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 252.
(misidentified reference to Unio (Leptodea) nervosa Rafinesque, 1820)

Anodonta declivis Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, Amer. J. Sci. 25(2): 341, pl. 1, fig. 11.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 263.

Unio alabamensis Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 67.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 260.
(new name for Symphynota inflata Lea, 1831)

Alasmodonta radiata Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, Amer. J. Sci. 25(2): 341, pl. 1, fig. 10.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 263 [as ‘Strophitus radiatus’].
Type(s): LECTOTYPE ANSP_41147, Greene Co., Ala.

Anodonta teres Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 47, pl. 7, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 264.

Unio laevigatus Say, 1834
‘Rafinesque’ of Authors.
Say, 1834, Amer. Conch. 6: [no pagination].
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 70.
Ferussac, 1835, Mag. Zool. 5: 28.
Lea, 1836, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 59.
Lea, 1852, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 57.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 251.
Ortmann, 1921, Mem. Carnegie Mus. 8: 92.
(error for Unio (Aximedia) levigata Rafinesque, 1820)

Unio masoni Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 34, pl. 5, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(3): 28, pl. 12, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 252.

Unio lienosus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, Amer. J. Sci. 25(2): 339, pl. 1, fig. 4.
Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(7): 60, pl. 34, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 251.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE ANSP_9747, Alabama R., Ala.

Unio stramineus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, Amer. J. Sci. 25(2): 339, pl. 1, fig. 6.
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: pl. 7, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1838, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(10): 91, pl. 50, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 258.

Unio tenebrosus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 42, pl. 7, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 258.

Unio delumbis Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 35, pl. 5, fig. 3.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 248.

Unio arctatus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, Amer. J. Sci. 25(2): 340, pl. 1, fig. 9.
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 36, pl. 5, fig. 4.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 245.

Unio raveneli Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 39, pl. 6, fig. 4.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 256.
(renamed Margarita (Unio) watereensis Lea, 1836)
Type(s): SYNTYPE ANSP_41370, So. Carolina.

Unio vibex Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 31, pl. 4, fig. 3.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 260.
Type(s): UNKNOWN ANSP_56488, Black Warrior River, Ala.

Unio nebulosus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 28, pl. 3, fig. 7.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 252.

Unio taeniatus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 26, pl. 4, fig. 2 [as ‘tæniatus’].
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 258 [as ‘tæniatus’].
Type(s): HOLOTYPE ANSP_56441, Flint River, Ala.

Unio pectorosus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 37, pl. 6, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(3): 25, pl. 11, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 254.

Unio perovalis Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 43, pl. 2, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 254.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE ANSP_56416, Alabama R.

Unio altilis Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 43, pl. 2, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 244.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE ANSP_56419, Ogeechee R., Ga.

Unio icterinus Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 41, pl. 6, fig. 5.
Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(4): 39, pl. 18, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 250.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE ANSP_41381, muddy shore, Savannah River, opposite Augusta [Richmond Co.], Georgia.

Anodonta subvexa Conrad, 1834
Conrad, 1834, Amer. J. Sci. 25(2): 341, pl. 1, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1834, New Fresh-Water Shells: 73.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 264.

Unio ligamentinus Deshayes, 1835
Deshayes, 1835, Hist. Natur. Anim. sans Vert. 6: ??.
‘Lamarck’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 251. [in part]
(misidentified reference to Unio ligamentina Lamarck, 1819)

Unio fasciatus Conrad, 1835
‘Raf.’ Conrad, 1835, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(1): 3, pl. 1.
‘Raf.’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 249.
(reference to Unio (Elliptio) fasciata Rafinesque, 1820)

Unio phillipsii Conrad, 1835
Conrad, 1835, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(1): 9, pl. 5, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 255.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE ANSP_19432, Wabash R., Indiana.

Unio subinflatus Conrad, 1835
Conrad, 1835, New Fresh-Water Shells, Appendix: 5, pl. 9, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1838, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(11): 97, pl. 54, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 258.
Type(s): SYNTYPE ANSP_119985, Augusta, Ga.

Unio fragosus Conrad, 1836
Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(2): 12, pl. 6, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 249.

Unio mortoni Conrad, 1836
Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(2): 11, pl. 6, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 252.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE ANSP_10287A, Bayou Teche, Louisiana.

Unio coccineus Conrad, 1836
‘Hildreth’ Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(3): 29, pl. 13, fig. 1.
‘Hildreth’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 247.
Type(s): FIGURED SYNTYPE USNM_85848, Columbus, Ohio.

Unio catillus Conrad, 1836
Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(3): 30, pl. 13, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 246.

Alasmodonta truncata Lea, 1836
‘Say, in lit.’ of Authors.
Lea, 1836, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 44.
Lea, 1838, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 135.
Agassiz, 1852, Arch. Naturg. 18(1): 46.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 262.
(intro'd as syn of Alasmidonta marginata Say, 1818)

Unio occidentalis Conrad, 1836
Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(7): 64, pl. 36, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 253.

Margarita (Unio) egyptiacus Jay, 1836
‘Cailliaud’ of Authors.
Jay, 1836, Cat. Rec. Shells: 20.
Lea, 1836, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 29.
Lea, 1838, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 21.
Hanley, 1843, Illustr. Descr. Cat. Rec. Bivalve Shells: 198.
Lea, 1852, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 32.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 267.
Adams & Adams, 1857, Gen. Rec. Moll. 2: 494.
Lea, 1870, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 50.
Haas, 1940, Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 24: 140 [as ‘Caelatura egyptiaca’].
Araujo et al., 2017, Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 179(2): 280.
(error for Unio aegyptiacus Cailliaud, 1827)

Anodonta virgata Conrad, 1836
Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(5): back cover.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 263 [as ‘Strophitus virgatus’].

Unio intermedius Conrad, 1836
Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(7): 63, pl. 35, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 250.
Type(s): LECTOTYPE ANSP_41606, Nolachucky R., Tenn.

Unio productus Conrad, 1836
Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(3): 31, pl. 14, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 255.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE ANSP_41397, [no locality available - North America].

Anodonta imbecilis Lea, 1836
‘Say’ of Authors.
Lea, 1836, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 54.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 264.
Adams & Adams, 1857, Gen. Rec. Moll. 2: 502.
Say, 1858, [in] Binney, Compl. Writings T. Say: 140.
Clench & Turner, 1956, Bull. Fla. State Mus. 1: 187.
Murray & Leonard, 1962, Handbk. Unionid Muss. Kansas: 95.
R.I. Johnson, 1970, Bull. MCZ 140(6): 362.
Heard, 1975, Malacologia 15(1): 84.
Kat, 1983, Malacologia 23(2): 362.
Hoeh, 1990, Malac. Review 23: 63.
Lydeard et al., 1996, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London (B, Biol. Sci.) 351: 1595.
Rosenberg et al., 1997, J. Moll. Studies 63: 303.
Adamkewicz et al., 1997, MBE 14(6): 622.
(error for Anodonta imbecillis Say, 1829)

Unio niger Conrad, 1836
‘Rafinesque’ Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(6): 49, pl. 46.
‘Rafinesque’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 253.
(reference to Unio (Elliptio) nigra Rafinesque, 1820)

Unio subplanus Conrad, 1837
Conrad, 1837, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(9): 73, pl. 41, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 258.

Unio rudis Conrad, 1837
Conrad, 1837, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(8): 76, pl. 43, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 257.
(new name for Unio ravenelianus Lea, 1834)

Unio collinus Conrad, 1837
Conrad, 1837, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(8): 65, pl. 36, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1840, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(12): 109, pl. 60, figs. 3.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 247.
Type(s): LECTOTYPE ANSP_41007, Rockbridge Co., Va.

Unio plexus Conrad, 1838
Conrad, 1838, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(10): 89, pl. 49, figs. 1-2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 255.
Type(s): LECTOTYPE ANSP_129923, Vera Cruz, Mexico.

Unio lienosus variety constrictus Conrad, 1838
Conrad, 1838, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(10): 91, pl. 49, fig. 4.
Conrad, 1838, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(11): back cover correginda [as ‘Unio constrictus’].
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 247 [as ‘Unio constrictus’].
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Unio lienosus Conrad, 1834)
Type(s): HOLOTYPE ANSP_56465A, North River, Rockbridge Co., Va.

Unio pullus Conrad, 1838
Conrad, 1838, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(11): 100, pl. 55, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 255.

Unio excultus Conrad, 1838
Conrad, 1838, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(11): 99, pl. 55, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 249.

Unio saxeus Conrad, 1838
Conrad, 1838, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(11): back cover.
Conrad, 1840, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(12): 109, pl. 60, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 257.

Unio cerinus Conrad, 1838
Conrad, 1838, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(11): 95, pl. 52.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 246.
Type(s): LECTOTYPE ANSP_41644, New Orleans, La.

Unio planilateris Conrad, 1838
Conrad, 1838, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(11): back cover.
Conrad, 1840, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(12): 103, pl. 57, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 255 [as ‘planitaleris’].

Unio latiradiatus Conrad, 1838
Conrad, 1838, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(11): 96, pl. 53.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 251.
(new name for Unio interruptus Lea, 1838)

Quadrula lachrymosa Swainson, 1840
‘Lea’ of Authors.
Swainson, 1840, Treat. Malacol.: 378.
Hanley, 1843, Illustr. Descr. Cat. Rec. Bivalve Shells: 177.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 256.
Adams & Adams, 1857, Gen. Rec. Moll. 2: 497.
Reeve, 1864, Conch. Icon. 16: pl. 9, sp. 33.
Call, 1895, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7: 21.
F.C. Baker, 1898, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci. 3(1): 83, pl. 25, fig. 1; pl. 12, fig. 2.
Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 776.
Call, 1900, Ind. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. (1899): 489.
Ortmann, 1910, Nautilus 23(11): 140.
Ortmann, 1910, Nautilus 23: 116.
Ortmann, 1912, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 8: 253.
Simpson, 1914, Descr. Cat. Naiades: 839, 841.
Ortmann & Walker, 1922, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. (112): 14, 16.
Frierson, 1927, Check List N. Amer. Naiades: 47.
F.C. Baker, 1928, Bull. Wisconsin Geol. Nat. Hist. Survey 70(2): 84.
R.I. Johnson, 1980, Bull. MCZ 149(2): 90.
Vidrine, 1993, Histr. Distr. Freshw. Mussels LA: 53.
Strayer & Jirka, 1997, Pearly Mussels NY (26): 98.
(error for Unio lacrymosus Lea, 1828)

Unio nodiferus Conrad, 1841
Conrad, 1841, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1: 19.
Conrad, 1850, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1: 277, pl. 38, figs. 4, 8.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 253.
Type(s): LECTOTYPE ANSP_10285, Jackson, La.

Unio perplicatus Conrad, 1841
Conrad, 1841, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1: 19.
Conrad, 1850, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1: 276, pl. 38, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 261 [as ‘Plectomerus perplicatus’].
Type(s): HOLOTYPE ANSP_129919, Jackson, Miss.

Margaritana curreyana Lea, 1842
‘Lea’ of Authors.
Lea, 1842, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 8 [O. 3]: pl. 18, fig. 40.
Agassiz, 1852, Arch. Naturg. 18(1): 47.
Lea, 1852, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 42.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 263.
Adams & Adams, 1857, Gen. Rec. Moll. 2: 499.
Sowerby, 1868, Conch. Icon. 16: pl. 63, sp. 319.
Lea, 1870, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 68.
Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 661.
Simpson, 1914, Descr. Cat. Naiades: 474.
Frierson, 1927, Check List N. Amer. Naiades: 21.
Haas, 1969, Das Tierreich 88: 395.
(error for Margaritana curreyiana Lea, 1840)

Unio zieglerianus Hanley, 1843
‘Lea’ of Authors.
Hanley, 1843, Illustr. Descr. Cat. Rec. Bivalve Shells: 193.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 260.
Lea, 1870, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 45.
(error for Unio zeiglerianus Lea, 1838)

Margaritana etowaensis Conrad, 1849
Conrad, 1849, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 4: 154 [as ‘etowænsis’].
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 263 [as ‘Strophitus etowaosis’].

Unio nucleopsis Conrad, 1849
Conrad, 1849, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 4: 301.
Conrad, 1850, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1: 276, pl. 37, fig. 8.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 253.
Type(s): SYNTYPES ANSP_41421, Etowah River, Ga.

Unio plectophorus Conrad, 1849
Conrad, 1849, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 4: 154 [as ‘plectrophorus’].
Conrad, 1850, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1: 277, pl. 38, fig. 7.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 261 [as ‘Plectomerus plectophorus’].
(correct name for Unio plectrophorus Conrad, 1849)

Unio securiformis Conrad, 1849
Conrad, 1849, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 4: ??.
Conrad, 1849, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 4: 300.
Conrad, 1850, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1: 275, pl. 37, fig. 1.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 250.

Unio limatulus Conrad, 1849
Conrad, 1849, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 4: 154.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 251.

Unio stagnalis Conrad, 1849
Conrad, 1849, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 4: 300.
Conrad, 1850, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1: 275, pl. 37, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 257.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE MCZ_178778, Ogeechee River, Georgia.

Unio ogeecheensis Conrad, 1849
Conrad, 1849, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 4: 300.
Conrad, 1850, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1: 275, pl. 37, figs. 3-4.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 254.
Type(s): LECTOTYPE MCZ_146971, Ogeechee River, Georgia.

Unio oratus Conrad, 1849
Conrad, 1849, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 4: 301.
Conrad, 1850, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1: 276, pl. 37, fig. 6.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 254.

Unio contrarius Conrad, 1849
Conrad, 1849, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 4: 153.
Conrad, 1850, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1: 276, pl. 37, fig. 7.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 247.

Unio metaneurus Herrmannsen, 1849
‘Rafinesque’ of Authors.
Herrmannsen, 1849, Ind. Gener. Malacol. 2: 571.
Küster, 1852, Conchyl. Cab. 9(2): 50.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 252.
Thiele, 1934, Handb. Syst. Weichtierk. 3: 826 [1260] [as ‘Quadrula (Theliderma) metaneura’].
(error for Obliquaria (Quadrula) metanevra Rafinesque, 1820)

Unio aberti Conrad, 1850
Conrad, 1850, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 5: 10.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 244.
Conrad, 1854, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 2(4): 295, pl. 26, fig. 1.

Unio mississippiensis Conrad, 1850
Conrad, 1850, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1: 277, pl. 38, fig. 11.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 252.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE MCZ_178777, Tributary of the Lower Mississippi, Louisiana.

Unio hippopaeus Lea, 1852
‘Lea’ of Authors.
Lea, 1852, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 21 [as ‘hippopæus’].
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 261 [as ‘hippopæus’].
Adams & Adams, 1857, Gen. Rec. Moll. 2: 497 [as ‘hippopæus’].
Reeve, 1864, Conch. Icon. 16: pl. 11, sp. 40 [as ‘hippopæus’].
Lea, 1870, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 31 [as ‘hippopæus’].
Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 767 [as ‘hippopæa’].
Simpson, 1914, Descr. Cat. Naiades: 816 [as ‘hippopæa’].
Frierson, 1927, Check List N. Amer. Naiades: 61.
Haas, 1969, Das Tierreich 88: 287.
Clarke, 1973, Malacologia 13(1-2): 35.
Burch, 1975, Freshw. Unio. North Amer.: 165.
Strayer & Jirka, 1997, Pearly Mussels NY (26): 98.
He & Zhuang, 2013, Freshwater Bivalves China: 27.
(error for Unio hippopoeus Lea, 1845)

Unio reevianus Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ of Authors.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 256.
Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 538.
Simpson, 1914, Descr. Cat. Naiades: 74.
Utterback, 1916, Amer. Midl. Nat. 4(10): 449.
Frierson, 1927, Check List N. Amer. Naiades: 73.
Haas, 1969, Das Tierreich 88: 437.
R.I. Johnson, 1980, Bull. MCZ 149(2): 132.
Oesch, 1984, Missouri Naiades: 225.
Turgeon et al., 1988, Am. Fisher. Soc. Spec. Publ. (16): 31.
Williams et al., 1993, Fisheries 18(9): 12.
Turgeon et al., 1998, Am. Fisher. Soc. Spec. Publ. (26): 35.
Graf & Cummings, 2007, J. Moll. Studies 73: 305.
Bogan, 2010, FADA: [web].
Cummings & Graf, 2010, Ecol. Class. N. Amer. FW Inverts.: 376.
Haag, 2012, N. Amer. Freshw. Mussels: 71 [as ‘Lampsilis reeviana’].
(error for Unio reeveianus Lea, 1852)

Unio notatus Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 253.
(reference to Unio notatus Lea, 1838)

Unio fasciolus Conrad, 1853
‘Raf.’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 249.
(misidentified reference to Lampsilis fasciola Rafinesque, 1820)

Unio obovalis Conrad, 1853
‘Rafinesque’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 253.
(misidentified reference to Obovaria obovalis Rafinesque, 1820)

Anodonta linneana Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ of Authors.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 264.
Hanley, 1856, Cat. Rec. Bivalve Shells, Suppl.: 387.
Sowerby, 1870, Conch. Icon. 17: pl. 35, sp. 144.
Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 646.
Simpson, 1914, Descr. Cat. Naiades: 431.
Frierson, 1927, Check List N. Amer. Naiades: 14.
Haas, 1969, Das Tierreich 88: 364.
Parmalee & Bogan, 1998, The Freshwater Mussels of Tennessee: 206.
Watters et al., 2009, Freshw. Mussels OH: 260.
(error for Anodonta linnaeana Lea, 1852)

Unio vibex Conrad, 1853
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 260.
(misidentified reference to Unio vibex Conrad, 1834)

Unio paludicolor Conrad, 1853
‘Gould’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 254.
(error for Unio paludicolus Gould, 1845)

Unio hanleyanus Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ of Authors.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 250.
Sowerby, 1866, Conch. Icon. 16: pl. 46, sp. 249.
Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 759.
Simpson, 1914, Descr. Cat. Naiades: 780.
Frierson, 1927, Check List N. Amer. Naiades: 42, sp. 175.
Haas, 1969, Das Tierreich 88: 256.
Burch, 1975, Freshw. Unio. North Amer.: 13.
Turgeon et al., 1988, Am. Fisher. Soc. Spec. Publ. (16): 32.
Williams et al., 1993, Fisheries 18(9): 13.
Parmalee & Bogan, 1998, The Freshwater Mussels of Tennessee: 184.
Lydeard et al., 1999, Gulf Mex. Sci. 17(2): 129.
(error for Unio hanleyianus Lea, 1852)

Unio ruber Conrad, 1853
‘Rafinesque’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 257.
(reference to Obliquaria rubra Rafinesque, 1820)

Anodonta marryattana Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ of Authors.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 264.
Sowerby, 1870, Conch. Icon. 17: pl. 28, sp. 111.
Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 642.
Simpson, 1914, Descr. Cat. Naiades: 422.
F.C. Baker, 1928, Bull. Wisconsin Geol. Nat. Hist. Survey 70(2): 157.
Haas, 1969, Das Tierreich 88: 365.
(error for Anodonta maryattana Lea, 1840)

Monodontina buschiana Conrad, 1853
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 269.
(new name for Margaritana vondembuschiana Lea, 1840)

Unio rivularis Conrad, 1853
‘Say’ Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(5): 45, pl. 23, fig. 1 [as ‘U. declivis’].
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 257.
Conrad, 1854, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 2(4): 296.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE ANSP_42852, small creek in Greene Co., Ala.

Unio carolinanus Conrad, 1853
‘Bosc’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 246.
(error for Unio caroliniana Bosc, 1801)

Unio eastbrookianus Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 248.
(error for Unio estabrookianus Lea, 1845)

Unio hayesianus Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 250.
(error for Unio haysianus Lea, 1834)

Unio leseurianus Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ of Authors.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 251.
Frierson, 1927, Check List N. Amer. Naiades: 56.
(error for Unio lesueurianus Lea, 1840)

Unio moussianus Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 252.
(error for Unio moussonianus Lea, 1852)

Mytilus fluviatilus Conrad, 1853
‘Lister’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 254.
(error for Mytilus fluviatilis Gmelin, 1791)

Unio planitaleris Conrad, 1853
‘Con.’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 255.
(error for Unio planilateris Conrad, 1838)

Unio pumilis Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 255.
(error for Unio pumilus Lea, 1838)

Unio pygmoeus Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 256 [as ‘pygmœus’].
(error for Unio pygmaeus Lea, 1852)

Unio vanuxemiensis Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 259.
(error for Unio vanuxemensis Lea, 1838)

Unio vaughnianus Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 259.
Haag, 2012, N. Amer. Freshw. Mussels: 74 [as ‘Villosa vaughniana’].
(error for Unio vaughanianus Lea, 1838)

Unio whiteanus Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ of Authors.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 260.
Frierson, 1927, Check List N. Amer. Naiades: 28.
(error for Unio whiteianus Lea, 1852)

Plectomerus boykianus Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 260.
(error for Unio boykinianus Lea, 1840)

Strophitus etowaosis Conrad, 1853
‘Con.’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 263.
(error for Margaritana etowaensis Conrad, 1849)

Anodonta harpenthis Conrad, 1853
‘Lea’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 264.
(error for Anodonta harpethensis Lea, 1840)

Unio phillipsea Conrad, 1853
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 269.
(error for Unio phillipsii Conrad, 1835)

Unio pectitus Conrad, 1854
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 255. [nomen nudum]
Conrad, 1854, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 2(4): 297, pl. 27, 4.

Unio velatus Conrad, 1854
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 259.
Conrad, 1854, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 2(4): 298, pl. 27, fig. 6.

Unio porrectus Conrad, 1854
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 268. [nomen nudum]
Conrad, 1854, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 2(4): 296, pl. 26, fig. 7.
(homonym of Unio porrectus Sowerby, 1829; new name for Unio parallelus Conrad, 1841)
Type(s): HOLOTYPE ANSP_42847, Jackson, Miss.

Unio subcroceus Conrad, 1854
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 268. [nomen nudum]
Conrad, 1854, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 2(4): 297, pl. 27, fig. 1.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE ANSP_41406, Canadian Fork, Arkansas River.

Taxonomic Opinions

Alasmodonta arcula (Lea, 1838)

Alasmodonta confragosa Say

Alasmodonta marginata (Say)
+ Unio varicosa Lamarck, 1819
+ Unio rugulosus Wood, 1828
+ Alasmodonta truncata Lea, 1836

Anodonta angulata Lea

Anodonta benedictensis Lea

Anodonta buchanensis Lea

Anodonta californiensis Lea

Anodonta cataracta Say
+ Anodonta fluviatilis Bosc, 1801

Anodonta cognata Gould

Anodonta couperiana Lea

Anodonta cylindracea Lea

Anodonta declivis Con., 1834
+ Anodonta plana Lea, 1834

Anodonta decora Lea

Anodonta denigrata Lea, 1852

Anodonta excurvata Dekay

Anodonta ferruginea Lea

Anodonta ferussaciana Lea

Anodonta footiana Lea

Anodonta fragilis Lam.

Anodonta gibbosa Say, 1824

Anodonta gigantea Lea

Anodonta glauca Valen.

Anodonta grandis Say, 1829
+ Anodonta corpulenta Cooper, 1834

Anodonta harpenthis [sic] Lea

Anodonta imbecilis [sic] Say, 1829
+ Anodonta incerta Lea, 1834

Anodonta implicata Say
+ Anodonta newtonensis Lea, 1838

Anodonta impura Say, 1829

Anodonta linneana [sic] Lea

Anodonta lugubris Say, 1829

Anodonta marginata Say

Anodonta marryattana [sic] Lea

Anodonta nuttalliana Lea

Anodonta oblita Lea, 1852

Anodonta opaca Lea, 1852

Anodonta oregonensis Lea

Anodonta ovata Lea

Anodonta pavonia Lea

Anodonta pepiniana Lea

Anodonta plicata Hald.

Anodonta salmonia Lea

Anodonta stewartiana Lea

Anodonta subcylindracea Lea

Anodonta suborbiculata Say

Anodonta subvexa Con.

Anodonta teres Con.

Anodonta virens Lea

Anodonta wahlamatensis Lea

Coelatura aegyptiacus Caill.

Complanaria complanata (Barnes)
+ Unio katherinae Lea, 1838

Complanaria compressa (Lea, 1832)
+ Complanaria alasmodontina Stimpson, 1851

Complanaria costata (Raf.)
+ Alasmodonta rugosa Barnes, 1823

Cucumaria cucumoides (Lea)

Hyriopsis delphinus (Gruner)

Leptodea lata Raf.
+ Unio dehiscens Say, 1829
+ Unio oriens Lea, 1831

Leptodea leptodon Raf.
+ Unio planus Barnes, 1823
+ Anodon purpurascens Swainson, 1823
+ Symphynota tenuissima Lea, 1829

Margaritana arcuata (Barnes)

Margaritana falcata Gould

Margaritana monodonta (Say)
+ Unio soleniformis Lea, 1831

Metaptera alata (Say)
+ Metaptera megaptera Rafinesque, 1820

Metaptera fragilis (Raf.)
+ Unio fragilis Swainson, 1823
+ Unio gracilis Barnes, 1823

Metaptera inflata (Lea)
+ Unio alabamensis Conrad, 1834
+ Unio inflatus Conrad, 1836

Metaptera ohiensis (Raf.)
+ Symphynota laevissima Lea, 1829

Monodontina buschiana (Con.)
+ Margaritana vondembuschiana Lea, 1840

Nodularia douglasiæ (Gray)

Parreysia multidentatus (Parreyss)

Plectomerus atromarginatus (Lea)

Plectomerus boykianus [sic] (Lea)

Plectomerus costatus (Raf.)
+ Unio undulatus Barnes, 1823
+ Unio costatus Conrad, 1836
+ Unio latecostatus Lea, 1845

Plectomerus crassidens (Lam.)
+ Unio interruptus Say, 1831
+ Unio trapezoides Lea, 1831

Plectomerus nicklinianus (Lea)

Plectomerus perplicatus (Con.)
+ Unio atrocostatus Lea, 1845

Plectomerus plectophorus (Con.)

Plectomerus plicatus (Say)
+ Unio peruviana Lamarck, 1819
+ Unio rariplicata Lamarck, 1819
+ Unio crassus Barnes, 1823
+ Unio dombeyana Valenciennes, 1827
+ Unio hippopoeus Lea, 1845

Plectomerus sloatianus (Lea)

Strophitus argentea (Lea)

Strophitus arkansensis (Lea)

Strophitus calceolus (Lea)

Strophitus curreyanus [sic] (Lea)

Strophitus deltoideus (Lea)

Strophitus edentulus (Say)
+ Anodon areolatus Swainson, 1829

Strophitus etowaosis [sic] (Con., 1849)

Strophitus fabula (Lea)

Strophitus hildrethianus (Lea)

Strophitus holstonia (Lea)

Strophitus minor (Lea)

Strophitus radiatus (Con.)

Strophitus ravenelianus (Lea)

Strophitus shæfferiana (Lea)

Strophitus tetragona (Lea, 1846)

Strophitus unadilla (Dekay)

Strophitus undulatus (Say)
+ Anodonta pensylvanica Lamarck, 1819
+ Anodon rugosus Swainson, 1822

Strophitus virgatus (Conrad, 1836)
+ Anodonta wardiana Lea, 1838

Unio (Cunicula) arcus Con., 1834

Unio (Cunicula) cælatus Con., 1834

Unio (Cunicula) eastbrookianus [sic] Lea, 1845

Unio (Cunicula) subtentus Say

Unio (Eurinea) [sic] jayensis Lea, 1838

Unio (Eurinea) [sic] lanceolatus Lea, 1832

Unio (Eurinea) [sic] productus Con.

Unio (Glebula) rotundatus Lam.
+ Unio suborbiculata Lamarck, 1819
+ Obliquaria (Plagiola) decorticata Rafinesque, 1820
+ Unio glebulus Say, 1831
+ Unio subglobosus Lea, 1834

Unio (Iridea) charruana D’Orb.

Unio (Iridea) fontainiana D’Orb.

Unio (Iridea) granosus Lam.

Unio (Iridea) guaraniana D’Orb.

Unio (Iridea) hylæa D’Orb.

Unio (Iridea) matoniana D’Orb.

Unio (Iridea) paranensis Lea

Unio (Iridea) psammoica D’Orb.

Unio (Iridea) rhuacoica D’Orb.

Unio (Iridea) solisiana D’Orb.

Unio (Lampsilis) dolabræformis Lea, 1838

Unio (Lampsilis) ovatus Say

Unio (Lanceolaria) grayanus Lea

Unio (Mysca) pictorum

Unio (Theliderma) fragosus Con.

Unio (Theliderma) nobilis

Unio (Theliderma) phillipsii Con.

Unio (Uniomerus) camptodon Say

Unio (Uniomerus) porrectus

Unio (Uniomerus) sayii

Unio (Uniomerus) subcroceus

Unio (Uniomerus) symmetricus Lea, 1845

Unio abacus Hald.

Unio aberti Con., 1850
+ Unio lamarckianus Lea, 1852

Unio acutissimus Lea, 1834

Unio affinis Lea, 1852

Unio altilis Con.

Unio amygdalum Lea, 1846

Unio amœnus Lea, 1841

Unio angustatus Lea, 1832

Unio apiculatus Say, 1829
+ Unio asper Jay, 1839

Unio approximus Lea, 1845

Unio arctatus Con.

Unio arctior Lea, 1838

Unio argenteus Lea, 1841

Unio asper Lea, 1832

Unio barnesianus Lea, 1838

Unio barrattii Lea, 1852

Unio biangulatus Lea, 1841

Unio bigbyensis Lea, 1841

Unio binneyi Lea, 1845

Unio blandingianus Lea, 1834

Unio bournianus Lea, 1841

Unio boydianus Lea, 1841

Unio brumbyanus Lea, 1841

Unio buckleyi Lea, 1846

Unio buddianus Lea, 1846

Unio bullatus Raf., 1820
+ Unio verrucosus albus Hildreth, 1828
+ Unio pustulosus Lea, 1831

Unio buxeus Lea, 1852

Unio caliginosus Lea, 1845

Unio callosus Lea, 1841

Unio capax Green, 1832
+ Symphynota globosa Lea, 1834

Unio capsæformis Lea, 1834

Unio cardium Raf., 1820
+ Unio ovata Lamarck, 1819
+ Unio ventricosus Barnes, 1823
+ Unio occidens Lea, 1829
+ Unio subovatus Lea, 1831

Unio cariosus Say
+ Unio ovatus Valenciennes, 1827
+ Unio cariosus DeKay, 1843

Unio carolinanus [sic] Bosc
+ Unio obesus Lea, 1831

Unio castaneus Lea, 1832

Unio catillus Conrad, 1836

Unio cerinus Con., 1838

Unio cicatricosus Say, 1829
+ Unio varicosus Lea, 1831

Unio cincinnatiensis Lea, 1841

Unio claibornensis Lea, 1838
+ Unio obtusus Lea, 1840

Unio clarkianus Lea, 1852

Unio clava Lamarck, 1819
+ Pleurobema mytiloides Rafinesque, 1820
+ Obliquaria (Scalenaria) scalenia Rafinesque, 1820
+ Pleurobema cuneata Rafinesque, 1820
+ Unio modioliformis Lea, 1834
+ Unio clavus Conrad, 1835

Unio coccineus ‘Hildreth’ MSS
+ Unio coccineus Lea, 1838

Unio collinus Con.

Unio complanatus Solander
+ Unio violaceus Spengler, 1793
+ Unio purpureus Say, 1817
+ Unio coarctata Lamarck, 1819
+ Unio purpurascens Lamarck, 1819
+ Unio rhombula Lamarck, 1819
+ Unio carinifera Lamarck, 1819
+ Unio georgina Lamarck, 1819
+ Unio sulcidens Lamarck, 1819
+ Unio glabrata Lamarck, 1819
+ Unio rarisulcata Lamarck, 1819
+ Unio (Elliptio) aurata Rafinesque, 1820

Unio compressissimus Lea, 1845

Unio concavus Lea, 1852

Unio congaræus Lea, 1832

Unio conradicus Lea, 1834

Unio constrictus Con.

Unio contrarius Con.

Unio cooperianus Lea, 1834

Unio cor Con.

Unio cordatus (Raf.)

Unio creperus Lea

Unio crocatus Lea, 1841

Unio cumberlandianus Lea, 1838
+ Unio cumberlandicus Lea, 1838

Unio cuneolus Lea, 1842

Unio cuvierianus Lea, 1852

Unio cylindricus Say
+ Unio naviformis Lamarck, 1819
+ Unio (Eurynia) solenoides Rafinesque, 1820

Unio cyphius [sic] Raf.
+ Unio aesopus Green, 1827

Unio cyrenoides Philippi, 1848

Unio dactylus Lea, 1841

Unio dariensis Lea, 1841

Unio decisus Lea, 1832

Unio declivis Say, 1831
+ Unio geometricus Lea, 1834

Unio decoratus Lea, 1852

Unio delumbis Con.
+ Unio modioliformis Lea, 1834

Unio dilatatus Raf.
+ Unio nasuta Lamarck, 1819
+ Obliquaria (Ellipsaria) cuprea Rafinesque, 1820
+ Obliquaria (Ellipsaria) atroviolacea Rafinesque, 1820
+ Unio gibbosus Barnes, 1823

Unio discus Lea, 1838

Unio dolabelloides Lea, 1842

Unio dorfeuillianus Lea, 1838

Unio dromas Lea, 1834
+ Unio caperatus Lea, 1845

Unio duttonianus Lea, 1841

Unio edgarianus Lea, 1841

Unio excultus Con.
+ Margaron (Unio) declivis Lea, 1852

Unio exiguus Lea, 1842

Unio famelicus Gould

Unio fasciatus [Raf.]
+ Unio crassus Say, 1817
+ Unio carinatus Barnes, 1823
+ Unio ellipticus Barnes, 1823

Unio fasciolaris Raf.
+ Obliquaria (Ellipsaria) sinuata Rafinesque, 1820
+ Unio mucronatus Barnes, 1823
+ Unio cuneatus Barnes, 1823
+ Unio phaseolus Hildreth, 1828
+ Unio planulatus Lea, 1829
+ Unio camelus Lea, 1834

Unio fasciolus Raf.
+ Unio subangulatus Lea, 1840

Unio fatuus Lea

Unio fisherianus Lea, 1838
+ Unio nasutus Conrad, 1838

Unio flavescens Lea, 1845

Unio flavus Raf.
+ Unio rubiginosus Lea, 1829
+ Unio flavus Conrad, 1837

Unio flexuosus Raf.
+ Unio foliatus Hildreth, 1828
+ Unio flexuosus Conrad, 1835

Unio floridensis Lea, 1852

Unio folliculatus Lea, 1838

Unio forbesianus Lea, 1852

Unio foremanianus Lea, 1841

Unio fraternus Lea, 1852

Unio fulgidus Lea, 1845

Unio fuliginosus Lea, 1845

Unio furvus Con.
+ Unio hanleyianus Lea, 1852
+ Unio troschelianus Lea, 1852

Unio fuscatus Lea, 1846

Unio geddingsianus Lea, 1841

Unio georgianus Lea, 1841

Unio gibber Lea

Unio gibbesianus Lea, 1852

Unio glaber Lea, 1838

Unio glans Lea, 1832

Unio gouldii Lea, 1845

Unio graniferus Lea

Unio greenii Con.
+ Unio simplex Lea, 1845

Unio griffithianus Lea, 1834

Unio haleianus Lea, 1842

Unio hayesianus [sic] Lea, 1834

Unio hebes Lea, 1852

Unio heterodon Lea, 1833

Unio holstonensis Lea, 1841

Unio hopetonensis Lea, 1838

Unio hyalinus Lea, 1845

Unio hydianus Lea, 1838

Unio icterinus Con.
+ Unio fulvus Lea, 1834

Unio ineptus Lea, 1852

Unio infucatus Co.

Unio intermedius Con.

Unio interruptus Raf.
+ Unio brevidens Lea, 1831
+ Unio interruptus Conrad, 1834

Unio jejunus Lea, 1838

Unio keinerianus [sic] Lea, 1852
+ Unio keinerianus Lea, 1852

Unio kirtlandianus Lea, 1834

Unio kleinianus Lea, 1852

Unio lapillus Say, 1831
+ Unio fabalis Lea, 1831

Unio latiradiatus Con.
+ Unio interruptus Lea, 1838

Unio lazarus Lea, 1852

Unio lecontianus Lea, 1838

Unio lenior Lea, 1841

Unio leseurianus [sic] Lea, 1842

Unio lienosus Con.
+ Unio obscurus Lea, 1838

Unio ligamentinus Lam.
+ Unio multiradiatus Lea, 1829
+ Unio fasciolus Say, 1834

Unio limatulus Con., 1849
+ Unio tuomeyi Lea, 1852

Unio lineatus Lea, 1841

Unio lineolatus (Raf.)
+ Obliquaria (Plagiola) depressa Rafinesque, 1820
+ Unio securis Lea, 1829

Unio lugubris Lea

Unio luridus Lea

Unio luteolus Lam.
+ Unio siliquoideus Barnes, 1823
+ Unio inflatus Barnes, 1823

Unio lævigatus [sic] Raf.
+ Unio lens Lea, 1831

Unio maculatus Con., 1834

Unio masoni Con.

Unio menkianus Lea, 1838

Unio merus Lea, 1852

Unio metallicus Say, 1830
+ Unio cuprinus Lea, 1831

Unio metaneurus [sic] Raf.
+ Unio nodosus Barnes, 1823
+ Unio rugosus Barnes, 1823

Unio minor Lea, 1846

Unio mississippiensis Con.

Unio monroensis Lea, 1841

Unio mortoni Con., 1835
+ Unio turgidus Lea, 1838

Unio moussianus [sic] Lea, 1852

Unio mühlfeldianus Lea, 1838

Unio mœstus Lea, 1841

Unio nashvillianus Lea, 1834

Unio nasutus Say
+ Unio rostrata Valenciennes, 1827
+ Unio nasutus Conrad, 1838

Unio nebulosus Con.

Unio neglectus Lea, 1846

Unio nervosus Raf.
+ Unio donaciformis Lea, 1828
+ Unio zigzag Lea, 1829
+ Unio nervosa Conrad, 1834

Unio nexus Say, 1831
+ Unio arcaeformis Lea, 1831

Unio nigellus Lea

Unio niger Raf.
+ Unio incrassatus Lea, 1840

Unio nigerrimus Lea, 1852

Unio nigrinus Lea

Unio nitens Lea

Unio nodiferus Con.

Unio nodulatus Raf.
+ Unio pustulatus Lea, 1831
+ Unio nodulatus Say, 1834

Unio notatus Lea, 1838

Unio novi-eboraci Lea, 1838

Unio nucleopsis Con.

Unio obliquata (Raf.)
+ Unio ridibundus Say, 1829
+ Unio sulcatus Lea, 1829

Unio obliquus Lam.
+ Unio ebenus Lea, 1831
+ Unio obliqua Ferussac, 1835
+ Unio (s.s.) mytiloides Swainson, 1840

Unio obovalis Raf.
+ Unio solidus Lea, 1838

Unio obtusus Lea

Unio occidentalis Con.

Unio ochraceus Say
+ Mytilus fluviatilis Gmelin, 1791
+ Lampsilis rosea Rafinesque, 1820
+ Lampsilis pallida Rafinesque, 1820
+ Unio rosaceus Conrad, 1849

Unio ogeecheensis Con.

Unio olivarius Raf.
+ Unio ellipsis Lea, 1828

Unio oratus Con.

Unio orbiculatus Hild., 1828
+ Unio abruptus Say, 1831
+ Margarita (Unio) orbiculatus Lea, 1836
+ Unio crassus Conrad, 1836

Unio oviformis Con.

Unio paliatus Lea, 1845

Unio pallescens Lea, 1845

Unio paludicolor [sic] Gould

Unio papyraceus Gould

Unio parvus Barnes

Unio paulus Lea

Unio pectitus Con.

Unio pectorosus Con., 1834
+ Unio perdix Lea, 1834

Unio pellucidus Lea, 1845

Unio penitus Con.

Unio pernodosus Lea, 1845

Unio perovalis Con.

Unio perovatus Con.
+ Unio nux Lea, 1852

Unio personatus Say, 1829
+ Unio pileus Lea, 1831
+ Unio capillaris Lea, 1834

Unio perstriatus Lea, 1852

Unio pictus Lea, 1834

Unio pilaris Lea

Unio placitus Lea, 1852

Unio planitaleris [sic] Con.

Unio plenus Lea, 1842

Unio plexus Con., 1836
+ Unio pliciferus Lea, 1838
+ Unio carbonarius Lea, 1838
+ Unio subtrapezius Philippi, 1847

Unio politus Say
+ Unio brevialis Lamarck, 1819
+ Unio brevialis Crouch, 1827
+ Unio subrotundus Lea, 1831

Unio powellii Lea, 1852

Unio prasinus Con., 1834
+ Unio schoolcraftensis Lea, 1834

Unio prevostianus Lea, 1852

Unio proximus Lea, 1852

Unio pullus Con.

Unio pulvinulus Lea, 1845

Unio pumilis [sic] Lea, 1838

Unio puniceus Haldeman

Unio purpuratus Lam.
+ Unio ater Lea, 1829
+ Unio atra Deshayes, 1830
+ Unio lugubris Say, 1832
+ Mya ventricosus Ferussac, 1835

Unio purpuriatus Say, 1829
+ Unio medellinus Lea, 1838

Unio pusillus Lea

Unio pygmœus [sic] Lea

Unio quadrulus Raf.
+ Unio lacrymosus Lea, 1828
+ Unio asperrimus Lea, 1831
+ Unio quadrulus Say, 1834

Unio radiatus Lam.
+ Mya pictorum tenuis Martini & Chemnitz, 1782
+ Unio virginiana Lamarck, 1819
+ Unio oblongatus Wood, 1828
+ Unio radiatus DeKay, 1843

Unio rangianus Lea, 1838

Unio raveneli Conrad, 1834
+ Unio confertus Lea, 1834
+ Margarita (Unio) watereensis Lea, 1836

Unio rectus Lam.
+ Unio (Eurynia) latissima Rafinesque, 1820
+ Unio praelongus Barnes, 1823
+ Unio rectus Conrad, 1836

Unio reevianus [sic] Lea, 1852

Unio reflexus Raf.
+ Unio cornutus Barnes, 1823

Unio regularis Lea, 1841

Unio retusus Lam.
+ Unio obtusa Cuvier, 1817
+ Obovaria torsa Rafinesque, 1820
+ Unio retusus Say, 1834

Unio rivularis Conrad, 1853
+ Unio declivis Conrad, 1836

Unio roanokensis Lea, 1838

Unio rosaceus DeKay

Unio rubellus Con.

Unio ruber Raf.
+ Unio pyramidatus Lea, 1831
+ Unio coccineus Jay, 1850

Unio rudis Conrad, 1837
+ Unio ravenelianus Lea, 1834

Unio rufusculus Lea, 1852

Unio rumphianus Lea, 1852

Unio sagittiformis Lea, 1852

Unio sapotalensis Lea

Unio satur Lea, 1852

Unio saxeus Con.

Unio securiformis Con.

Unio semigranosus V. d. Busch

Unio shepardianus Lea, 1834

Unio simus Lea, 1838

Unio sintoxia Raf.

Unio sordidus Lea, 1852

Unio sowerbianus Lea, 1834

Unio sparsus Lea, 1841

Unio spatulatus Lea, 1845

Unio spinosus Lea

Unio splendidus Lea

Unio stagnalis Con.

Unio stapes Lea, 1832

Unio stegarius Raf.
+ Unio irroratus Lea, 1828
+ Unio stegarius Say, 1834

Unio stewardsonii Lea, 1852

Unio stonensis Lea

Unio stramineus Con.

Unio striatus Lea, 1841

Unio strigosus Lea, 1841

Unio subinflatus Con., 1835

Unio subplanus Con.

Unio subrostratus Say, 1830
+ Unio iris Lea, 1829

Unio subrotundus Raf.
+ Obovaria striata Rafinesque, 1820
+ Unio circulus Lea, 1829
+ Unio subrotundus Ferussac, 1835

Unio taitianus Lea

Unio tampicoensis Lea

Unio tecomatensis Lea, 1841

Unio tener Lea, 1842

Unio tenerus Ravenel, Lea, 1834
+ Unio tenebrosus Conrad, 1834

Unio tennesseensis Lea, 1842

Unio teres Raf.
+ Unio anodontoides Lea, 1831
+ Unio teres Say, 1834

Unio tetralasmus Say

Unio tortivus Lea, 1842

Unio torulosus (Raf.)
+ Amblema gibbosa Rafinesque, 1820
+ Unio perplexus Lea, 1831
+ Unio torulosus Ferussac, 1835

Unio trabalis Conrad, 1834
+ Unio troostensis Lea, 1834

Unio trigonus Lea, 1832

Unio triqueter Raf.
+ Unio triangularis Barnes, 1823
+ Unio formosus Lea, 1831

Unio trossulus Lea

Unio truncatus Raf.
+ Unio elegans Lea, 1831

Unio tuberosus Lea, 1842

Unio tumescens Lea, 1845

Unio tæniatus Con.
+ Unio pulcher Lea, 1838

Unio undatus Barnes

Unio unicolor Lea, 1845

Unio utriculus Lea, 1845

Unio vanuxemiensis [sic] Lea, 1838

Unio vaughnianus [sic] Lea, 1838

Unio velatus Con., 1853

Unio venustus Lea, 1838

Unio verrucosus Raf.
+ Unio tuberculatus Barnes, 1823

Unio vibex Con.

Unio viridis Raf.
+ Unio viridis Conrad, 1835
+ Unio tappanianus Lea, 1838

Unio whiteanus [sic] Lea, 1852

Unio zeiglerianus Lea, 1838
+ Unio zieglerianus Hanley, 1843

Page updated: 16:06:32 Tue 08 Oct 2019

 
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