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Page last updated
Fri 01 Jul 2022

The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves)

FM(U)otW(aolcb) is the web version of the MUSSEL Project Database. Follow the links to browse the data or use the custom Google search field. Either way, you win!

The nominal species (available and otherwise) in this synonymy are listed by usage rather than strictly by publication date. The primary sorting order is by the most recent year (since 1969) that the species name was treated as valid, and then nominal species are sorted secondarily by publication year.

The taxonomic history of the valid species (since 1900) is listed at the bottom of the page.

Search the database pages:

Unionoida | Unionoidea | Unionidae | Ambleminae | Lampsilini | Toxolasma

species Toxolasma lividum Rafinesque, 1831: nominal species
     2 specimens available.

Toxolasma lividus Rafinesque, 1831
Rafinesque, 1831, Continuation: 2.
Rafinesque, 1864, [in] Binney & Tryon, reprint: 72.

Toxolasma lividusRafinesque (1831), Turgeon et al. (1988), Cummings & Mayer (1992), Williams et al. (1993), ..., ITIS (2012), Mitchell et al. (2016), Chase et al. (2018), Patterson et al. (2021)
Unio lividusFerussac (1835)
Toxolasma lividumOrtmann (1918), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009), Bogan (2010), ..., Klymus et al. (2020), Graf & Cummings (2021), FMCS (2021), Bieler (2021)
Carunculina mœstaOrtmann & Walker (1922)
Carunculina glansFrierson (1927), Haas (1969), R.I. Johnson (1980)
Toxelasma lividumThiele (1934)
Toxolasma lividaMorrison (1969)

Unio glans Lea, 1831
Lea, 1831, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 4 [O. 1]: 82, pl. 8, fig. 12.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_85312, New Harmony, Ind.

Unio glansLea (1831), Jay (1835), Ferussac (1835), Conrad (1836), ..., Lewis (1871), B.H. Wright (1888), Call (1895), Pilsbry & Rhoads (1896)
Margarita (Unio) glansLea (1836), Lea (1838)
Lampsilis glansAgassiz (1852)
Margaron (Unio) glansLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Hyridella) glansAdams & Adams (1857)
Lampsilis (Carunculina) glansSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (s.s.) glansCall (1900)
Eurynia (Carunculina) glansOrtmann (1912)
Carunculina glansUtterback (1916), Ortmann (1924), Frierson (1927), Haas (1969), Stansbery (1970), Gordon et al. (1979), R.I. Johnson (1980)
Carunculina moestaOrtmann (1925)
Toxolasma lividaMorrison (1969)
Carunculina parvaBurch (1975)
Toxolasma lividus glansOesch (1984)
Toxolasma lividusParmalee & Bogan (1998)
Toxolasma lividumWilliams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)
Toxolasma glansBreton et al. (2011), Chase et al. (2018)
Toxolasma cylindrellusIUCN (2012)
Toxolasma lividus gransKongim et al. (2015)

Unio moestus Lea, 1841
Lea, 1841, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 2: 82 [as ‘mœstus’].
Lea, 1842, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 8 [O. 3]: 244 [82], pl. 26, fig. 60 [as ‘mæstus’].
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_85320, French Broad R., E Tenn.

Unio moestusLea (1841)
Margaron (Unio) mæstusLea (1852)
Unio mœstusConrad (1853), Lewis (1871)
Unio (Hyridella) mœstusAdams & Adams (1857)
Unio maestusKüster (1861)
Margaron (Unio) mœstusLea (1870)
Unio mæstusB.H. Wright (1888)
Lampsilis (Carunculina) mœstusSimpson (1900)
Lampsilis (Carunculina) mœstaSimpson (1914)
Toxolasma lividumOrtmann (1918), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009), Bieler (2021)
Carunculina mœstaOrtmann & Walker (1922)
Carunculina moestaOrtmann (1924), Ortmann (1925)
Carunculina glansFrierson (1927), Haas (1969), Stansbery (1970), R.I. Johnson (1980)
Carunculina parvaBurch (1975)
Toxolasma lividusParmalee & Bogan (1998)

Unio maestus Lea, 1842
‘Lea’ of Authors.
Lea, 1842, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 8 [O. 3]: 244 [82], pl. 26, fig. 60 [as ‘mæstus’].
Lea, 1852, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 31 [as ‘mæstus’].
B.H. Wright, 1888, Check List N. Amer. Unionidae etc.: [3] [as ‘mæstus’].
(error for Unio moestus Lea, 1841)

Unio maestusLea (1842)
Lampsilis (Carunculina) mœstusSimpson (1900)
Carunculina glansFrierson (1927)
Toxolasma lividumWatters et al. (2009), Bieler (2021)

Carunculina glans moaesta R.I. Johnson, 1980
R.I. Johnson, 1980, Bull. MCZ 149(2): 94.
(error for Unio moestus Lea, 1841)

Carunculina glans moaestaR.I. Johnson (1980)

Toxolasma lividus grans Kongim et al., 2015
Kongim et al., 2015, ZooKeys 514: 103.
(error for Unio glans Lea, 1831)

Toxolasma lividus gransKongim et al. (2015)

Taxonomic History (since 1900)

Lampsilis (Carunculina) glansSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (s.s.) glansCall (1900)
Lampsilis (Carunculina) mœstusSimpson (1900)
Eurynia (Carunculina) glansOrtmann (1912)
Lampsilis (Carunculina) mœstaSimpson (1914)
Carunculina glansUtterback (1916), Ortmann (1924), Frierson (1927), Haas (1969), Stansbery (1970), Gordon et al. (1979), R.I. Johnson (1980)
Toxolasma lividumOrtmann (1918), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009), Bogan (2010), ..., Klymus et al. (2020), Graf & Cummings (2021), FMCS (2021), Bieler (2021)
Carunculina mœstaOrtmann & Walker (1922)
Carunculina moestaOrtmann (1924), Ortmann (1925)
Toxelasma lividumThiele (1934)
Toxolasma lividaMorrison (1969)
Carunculina parvaBurch (1975)
Carunculina glans moaestaR.I. Johnson (1980)
Toxolasma lividus glansOesch (1984)
Toxolasma lividusTurgeon et al. (1988), Cummings & Mayer (1992), Williams et al. (1993), Parmalee & Bogan (1998), ..., ITIS (2012), Mitchell et al. (2016), Chase et al. (2018), Patterson et al. (2021)
Toxolasma glansBreton et al. (2011), Chase et al. (2018)
Toxolasma cylindrellusIUCN (2012)
Toxolasma lividus gransKongim et al. (2015)

Page updated: 11:02:48 Fri 01 Jul 2022

 
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