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Page last updated
Wed 18 Jan 2023

The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves)

FM(U)otW(aolcb) is the web version of the MUSSEL Project Database. Follow the links to browse the data or use the custom Google search field. Either way, you win!

Cladomics pages are experimental — even more so than the rest of this site!

The purpose of the cladomics pages for each genus and family-group level taxon is to provide statistics and references indicating the extent to which published phylogenetic work supports the classification used here.

The Cladomics Summary provides an overview of the number of studies that have included terminal species representing this taxon as well as an indication of how frequently it has been recovered as monophyletic.

Following the summary, the available published clades representing the taxon are listed.

For more information, visit the Cladomics FARQ (frequently asked rhetorical questions) page. Abbreviations for the various statistics are explained on the FARQ!

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Unionoida | Unionoidea | Unionidae | Unioninae | Anodontini | Alasmidontina

genus Strophitus Rafinesque, 1820: cladomics
     7 valid species

Cladomics Summary

number of species = 7

analyzed in 42 cladograms in 29 publications
maximum number of terminal species in an analysis = 4, mean = 1.1

Basic Monophyly

number of cladograms that test basic monophyly (i.e., more than 1 included species) = 2
maximum number of included species = 4, mean = 3.0
proportion of cladograms that support basic monophyly = 1.0


Smith et al., 2018, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 4 13 12 7 0.0

*** Top Monophyly Cladogram *** *** Top Sister-Group Cladogram ***

              +-- Anodontoides_ferussacianus      
     +--------+                                   
     |        +-- Anodontoides_denigratus         
  +--+                                            
  |  |  +-------- Strophitus_undulatus **            
  |  +--+                                         
  |     |  +----- Strophitus_pascagoulaensis **      
  |     +--+                                      
  |        |  +-- Strophitus_radiatus **             
--+        +--+                                   
  |           +-- Strophitus_williamsi **            
  |                                               
  |           +-- Alasmidonta_triangulata         
  |  +--------+                                   
  |  |        +-- Lasmigona_etowaensis            
  |  |                                            
  +--+        +-- Pseudodontoideus_connasaugaensis
     |  +-----+                                   
     |  |     +-- Pseudodontoideus_subvexus       
     |  |                                         
     +--+     +-- Utterbackiana_couperiana        
        |  +--+                                   
        |  |  +-- Utterbackiana_heardi            
        +--+                                      
           |  +-- Utterbackiana_hartfieldorum     
           +--+                                   
              +-- Utterbackiana_suborbiculata     

Krebs et al., 2003, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 32 7 5 --
  +-- Strophitus_radiatus ** 
--+                       
  +-- Strophitus_undulatus **

Graf & Cummings, 2006, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 46 3 3 --
  +----- Alasmidonta_marginata
--+                           
  |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis    
  +--+                        
     +-- Strophitus_undulatus ** 

Graf & Ó Foighil, 2000, fig. 2A

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 29 4 3 --
        +-- Alasmidonta_marginata
  +-----+                        
  |     +-- Lasmigona_compressa  
--+                              
  |  +----- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
  +--+                           
     |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis    
     +--+                        
        +-- Pyganodon_fragilis   

Graf & Ó Foighil, 2000, fig. 2B

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 29 4 3 --
        +-- Alasmidonta_marginata
  +-----+                        
  |     +-- Lasmigona_compressa  
--+                              
  |  +----- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
  +--+                           
     |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis    
     +--+                        
        +-- Pyganodon_fragilis   

Bogan & Hoeh, 2000, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 33 1 1 --
  +-- Strophitus_undulatus **
--+                       
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis   

Hoeh et al., 2001, fig. 14.2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 30 1 1 --
-- Strophitus_undulatus

Hoeh et al., 2001, fig. 14.4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 30 1 1 --
  +-- Strophitus_undulatus **
--+                       
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis   

Hoeh et al., 2002, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 30 1 1 --
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis   
--+                       
  +-- Strophitus_undulatus **

Roe & Hoeh, 2003, fig. 4.2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 30 1 1 --
-- Strophitus_undulatus

Roe & Hoeh, 2003, fig. 4.3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 30 1 1 --
  +-- Pyganodon_grandis   
--+                       
  +-- Strophitus_undulatus **

Lydeard et al., 1996, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 26 5 4 --
     +----- Utterbackia_imbecillis  
  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Utterbackiana_couperiana
  |  +--+                           
--+     +-- Utterbackiana           
  |                                 
  |  +----- Strophitus_radiatus **     
  +--+                              
     |  +-- Lasmigona_costata       
     +--+                           
        +-- Alasmidonta_triangulata 

Lydeard et al., 1996, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 27 4 4 --
  +----- Strophitus_radiatus **    
--+                             
  |  +-- Lasmigona_costata      
  +--+                          
     +-- Alasmidonta_triangulata

Huang et al., 2002, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 33 4 4 --
  +-------- Utterbackia_imbecillis 
--+                                
  |  +----- Strophitus_radiatus **    
  +--+                             
     |  +-- Alasmidonta_triangulata
     +--+                          
        +-- Lasmigona_costata      

Huang et al., 2002, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 33 4 4 --
-- Strophitus_radiatus

Chong et al., 2008, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 20 7 4 --
  +----- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
--+                           
  |  +-- Alasmidonta_heterodon
  +--+                        
     +-- Lasmigona_compressa  

King et al., 1999, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 8 8 3 --
        +----- Lasmigona_costata    
  +-----+                           
  |     |  +-- Lasmigona_complanata 
  |     +--+                        
--+        +-- Lasmigona_alabamensis
  |                                 
  |  +-------- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
  +--+                              
     |  +----- Alasmidonta_heterodon
     +--+                           
        |  +-- Lasmigona_subviridis 
        +--+                        
           +-- Lasmigona_compressa  

King et al., 1999, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 8 8 2 --
        +-- Lasmigona_complanata   
  +-----+                          
  |     +-- Lasmigona_costata      
  |                                
--+  +----- Alasmidonta_heterodon  
  |  |                             
  |  +----- Strophitus_undulatus **   
  |  |                             
  +--+  +-- Lasmigona_compressa    
     |  |                          
     |  +-- Lasmigona_subviridis[1]
     |  |                          
     +--+-- Lasmigona_subviridis[2]
        |                          
        +-- Lasmigona_subviridis[3]
        |                          
        +-- Lasmigona_subviridis[4]

Hoeh et al., 2009, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 46 3 3 --
  +----- Alasmidonta_marginata
--+                           
  |  +-- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
  +--+                        
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis    

Hoeh et al., 2009, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 45 3 3 --
  +----- Alasmidonta_marginata
--+                           
  |  +-- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
  +--+                        
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis    

Hoeh et al., 2009, fig. 5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 45 3 3 --
  +----- Alasmidonta_marginata
--+                           
  |  +-- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
  +--+                        
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis    

Boyer et al., 2011, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 34 5 3 --
  +----- Alasmidonta_marginata
  |                           
  +----- Pyganodon_grandis    
  |                           
--+  +-- Lasmigona_complanata 
  +--+                        
  |  +-- Lasmigona_costata    
  |                           
  |  +-- Lasmigona_compressa  
  +--+                        
     +-- Strophitus_undulatus ** 

Boyer et al., 2011, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 37 8 6 --
  +-------------- Strophitus_undulatus **      
  |                                         
  |        +----- Lasmigona_complanata      
--+  +-----+                                
  |  |     |  +-- Lasmigona_costata         
  |  |     +--+                             
  +--+        +-- Arcidens_confragosus      
     |                                      
     |  +-------- Utterbackia_imbecillis    
     |  |                                   
     +--+-------- Alasmidonta_marginata     
        |                                   
        |  +----- Pyganodon_grandis         
        +--+                                
           |  +-- Anodontoides_ferussacianus
           +--+                             
              +-- Lasmigona_compressa       

Breton et al., 2011, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 38 11 4 --
                 +-- Lasmigona_complanata       
  +--------------+                              
  |              +-- Lasmigona_costata          
  |                                             
--+  +-------------- Strophitus_undulatus **       
  |  |                                          
  |  |           +-- Lasmigona_compressa        
  |  |        +--+                              
  +--+        |  +-- Lasmigona_subviridis       
     |  +-----+                                 
     |  |     |  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata      
     |  |     +--+                              
     |  |        +-- Alasmidonta_undulata       
     +--+                                       
        |        +-- Pyganodon_lacustris        
        |  +-----+                              
        |  |     +-- Pyganodon_grandis          
        +--+                                    
           |  +----- Utterbackia_peninsularis[2]
           +--+                                 
              |  +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis[1]
              +--+                              
                 +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis     

Pfeiffer & Graf, 2013, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 34 2 2 --
  +----- Strophitus_undulatus **
--+                          
  |  +-- Lasmigona_compressa 
  +--+                       
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis   

Inoue et al., 2014, fig. 3A

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 20 14 6 --
        +----------- Pseudodontoideus_subvexus  
  +-----+                                       
  |     |  +-------- Lasmigona_costata          
  |     +--+                                    
  |        |  +----- Lasmigona_complanata       
  |        +--+                                 
  |           |  +-- Arcidens_confragosus       
--+           +--+                              
  |              +-- Arcidens_wheeleri          
  |                                             
  |  +-------------- Strophitus_undulatus **       
  |  |                                          
  |  |     +-------- Pyganodon_grandis          
  |  |  +--+                                    
  +--+  |  |  +----- Utterbackia_peninsularis[2]
     |  |  +--+                                 
     |  |     |  +-- Utterbackia_imbecillis     
     |  |     +--+                              
     +--+        +-- Utterbackia_peninsularis[1]
        |                                       
        |        +-- Lasmigona_compressa        
        |  +-----+                              
        |  |     +-- Lasmigona_subviridis       
        +--+                                    
           |  +----- Alasmidonta_marginata      
           +--+                                 
              |  +-- Alasmidonta_undulata       
              +--+                              
                 +-- Alasmidonta_varicosa       

Jadhav & Jamkhedkar, 2009, fig. 11

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 25 3 3 --
  +----- Lasmigona_compressa  
  |                           
--+  +-- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
  |  |                        
  +--+-- Alasmidonta_marginata
     |                        
     +-- Pyganodon_grandis    

Lopes-Lima et al., 2017, fig. 1-2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 80 4 4 --
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis    
  +-----+                        
  |     +-- Simpsonaias_ambigua  
--+                              
  |  +----- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
  +--+                           
     |  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata
     +--+                        
        +-- Lasmigona_compressa  

Hewitt et al., 2018, fig. 5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 8 5 3 --
  +-------- Pyganodon_grandis   
  |                             
  |     +-- Lasmigona_subviridis
--+-----+                       
  |     +-- Strophitus_undulatus **
  |                             
  |  +----- Lasmigona_costata   
  +--+                          
     |  +-- Arcidens_wheeleri   
     +--+                       
        +-- Lasmigona_complanata

Bolotov et al., 2017, fig. S1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 137 4 4 --
  +----- Simpsonaias_ambigua 
--+                          
  |  +-- Pyganodon_grandis   
  +--+                       
     +-- Strophitus_undulatus **

Bolotov et al., 2017, fig. S2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 137 4 4 --
  +----- Pyganodon_grandis    
  |                           
  +----- Simpsonaias_ambigua  
--+                           
  +----- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
  |                           
  |  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata
  +--+                        
     +-- Lasmigona_compressa  

Bolotov et al., 2017, fig. S1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 124 4 4 --
-- Strophitus_undulatus

Bolotov et al., 2018, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 84 4 4 --
  +-------- Simpsonaias_ambigua  
--+                              
  |  +----- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
  +--+                           
     |  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata
     +--+                        
        +-- Lasmigona_compressa  

Wu et al., 2018, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 57 4 3 --
  +-------- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
  |                              
--+  +----- Lasmigona_compressa  
  |  |                           
  +--+----- Alasmidonta_marginata
     |                           
     |  +-- Pyganodon_cataracta  
     +--+                        
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis    

Huang et al., 2019, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 198 6 5 --
-- Strophitus_undulatus

Huang et al., 2019, fig. S3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 196 6 5 --
  +-- Simpsonaias_ambigua 
--+                       
  +-- Strophitus_undulatus **

Huang et al., 2019, fig. S4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 198 6 5 --
-- Strophitus_undulatus

Chase et al., 2018, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 38 11 4 --
        +-- Alasmidonta_undulata 
  +-----+                        
  |     +-- Alasmidonta_marginata
--+                              
  |  +----- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
  +--+                           
     |  +-- Lasmigona_compressa  
     +--+                        
        +-- Lasmigona_subviridis 

Inoue et al., 2018, fig. 1, 3a-c

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 203 16 6 --
-- Strophitus_undulatus

Lopes-Lima et al., 2020, fig. 2-4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 121 4 4 --
  +----- Pyganodon_grandis    
  |                           
  +----- Simpsonaias_ambigua  
--+                           
  +----- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
  |                           
  |  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata
  +--+                        
     +-- Lasmigona_compressa  

Jeratthitikul et al., 2022, fig. S1, 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 75 4 4 --
        +-- Pyganodon_grandis    
  +-----+                        
  |     +-- Simpsonaias_ambigua  
--+                              
  |  +----- Strophitus_undulatus ** 
  +--+                           
     |  +-- Alasmidonta_marginata
     +--+                        
        +-- Lasmigona_compressa  

Jeratthitikul et al., 2022, fig. S2, 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 75 4 4 --
  +----- Pyganodon_grandis   
--+                          
  |  +-- Strophitus_undulatus **
  +--+                       
     +-- Simpsonaias_ambigua 

Page updated: 08:56:50 Wed 18 Jan 2023

 
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