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Page last updated
Wed 01 Jul 2020

The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves)

FM(U)otW(aolcb) is the web version of the MUSSEL Project Database. Follow the links to browse the data or use the custom Google search field. Either way, you win!

The nominal species (available and otherwise) in this synonymy are listed by usage rather than strictly by publication date. The primary sorting order is by the most recent year (since 1969) that the species name was treated as valid, and then nominal species are sorted secondarily by publication year.

Search the database pages:

Bivalvia | Unionoida | Unionoidea | Margaritiferidae | Margaritiferinae | Margaritifera

species Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758): synonymy
     22 specimens available.

Mya margaritifera Linnaeus, 1758
Lister, 1678, Hist. Anim. Anglic.: [app.] 15, pl. 1, fig. 1. [pre-linnaean]
Lister, 1685, Conch.: pl. 149, fig. 4. [pre-linnaean]
Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. 1: 671, sp. 20.
Linnaeus, 1767, Syst. Nat. 1(2): 1112, sp. 29.
Type(s): LECTOTYPE LS_29, “Habitat in totius orbis arctici cataractis.”.

Mya margaritiferaLinnaeus (1758), Linnaeus (1767), Müller (1774), Gmelin (1791), Schreibers (1793), Montagu (1803), Turton (1807), Dillwyn (1817), Wood (1825)
Unio margaritiferusSpengler (1793), Hanley (1843), Sowerby (1868)
Unio margaritiferaCuvier (1798), Poiret (1801), Bosc (1801), Draparnaud (1806), Oken (1815), Goldfuss (1820), Pfeiffer (1821), Nilsson (1822), Férussac (1827), Lea (1834), Griffith & Pidgeon (1834), Kira (1954)
Margartifera margaritiferaSchumacher (1816)
Margaritana fluviatilisSchumacher (1817)
Unio sinuataChildren (1823)
Unio sinuatusMenke (1828), Menke (1830), Gassies (1849)
Unio elongatusWood (1828)
Alasmodonta margaritiferaFerussac (1835), C.B. Adams (1847)
Unio margaritiferRossmässler (1835), Schlüter (1838), Küster (1855)
Margarita (Margaritana) margaritiferaLea (1836)
Margaritana margaritiferaSowerby (1839), Swainson (1840), Dupuy (1852), Lea (1856), Küster (1862), Westerlund (1867), Bourguignat (1876), Clessin (1877), Drouët (1881), Locard (1882), Locard (1889), Westerlund (1890), Ihering (1893), Locard (1893), Drouët (1898), Simpson (1900), Kobelt (1904), Ortmann (1910), Ortmann (1912), Preston (1912), Hannibal (1912), Ortmann (1913), Simpson (1914), Ortmann (1919), Haas (1924), Frierson (1927), Germain (1931), Zhadin (1938), Zhadin (1965)
Damalis margaritiferaLeach (1847)
Margaron (Margaritana) margaritiferaLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Damaris elongataLeach (1852)
Unio (Baphia) margaritiferaMörch (1853)
Unio (Margaritana) margaritiferMoquin-Tandon (1855), Drouët (1857), Schrenck (1867)
Baphia margaritiferaAdams & Adams (1857)
Unio (Margaritana s.s.) margaritiferaFischer (1886)
Margaritana (s.s.) margaritiferaThiele (1934)
Margaritifera margaritiferaMandahl-Barth (1938), Modell (1942), Kira (1959), Heard & Guckert (1970), Burch (1975), Habe (1977), R.I. Johnson (1980), Davis & Fuller (1981), Davis et al. (1981), Kat (1983), Zatravkin (1983), Turgeon et al. (1988), Williams et al. (1993), Rosenberg et al. (1994), Ziuganov et al. (1994), IUCN (1996), Lydeard et al. (1996), Rosenberg et al. (1997), Strayer & Jirka (1997), Turgeon et al. (1998), Nagel et al. (1998), Korniushin (1998), Graf (2000), Graf & Ó Foighil (2000), Bogan & Hoeh (2000), Turner et al. (2000), Campbell (2000), Bába (2000), D.G. Smith (2001), Hoeh et al. (2001), Nagel & Badino (2001), Hoeh et al. (2002), Huang et al. (2002), Giribet & Distel (2003), Roe & Hoeh (2003), Machordom et al. (2003), Geist et al. (2003), Bogatov et al. (2003), Huff et al. (2004), Starobogatov et al. (2004), Campbell et al. (2005), Källersjö et al. (2005), Geist & Kuehn (2005), Kantor & Sysoev (2005), Walker et al. (2006), Graf & Cummings (2006), Zhou et al. (2007), Taylor et al. (2007), Kneeland & Rhymer (2007), Graf & Cummings (2007), Bouza et al. (2007), Graf (2007), Watters et al. (2009), Jadhav & Jamkhedkar (2009), Hoeh et al. (2009), Araujo et al. (2009), Araujo et al. (2009), Cummings & Graf (2010), Kantor et al. (2010), Bogan (2010), Breton et al. (2011), Whelan et al. (2011), Haag (2012), Zieritz et al. (2012), Fauna Europaea (2012), ITIS (2012), Mock et al. (2013), Bolotov et al. (2013), Pfeiffer & Graf (2013), Inoue et al. (2013), Reis et al. (2013), Graf et al. (2014), Bieler et al. (2014), Graf et al. (2015), Pfeiffer & Graf (2015), González & Giribet (2015), Bolotov et al. (2015), Takeuchi et al. (2015), Kongim et al. (2015), Gonzáles et al. (2015), Araujo et al. (2016), Mitchell et al. (2016), Vinarski & Kantor (2016), Lopes-Lima et al. (2017), Lopes-Lima et al. (2017), Bolotov et al. (2017), Bolotov et al. (2017), Williams et al. (2017), Amaro et al. (2017), Välilä et al. (2017), Bertucci et al. (2017), Froufe et al. (2017), Combosch et al. (2017), Hewitt et al. (2018), Soroka et al. (2018), Vikhrev et al. (2018), Bolotov et al. (2018), Pfeiffer et al. (2018), Huang et al. (2018), Lopes-Lima et al. (2018), Chase et al. (2018), Bogatov et al. (2018), Anisimova et al. (2018), Huang et al. (2019), Pfeiffer et al. (2019), Gomes-dos-Santos et al. (2019), Hewitt et al. (2019), Lyubas et al. (2019), Bolotov et al. (2019), Lemer et al. (2019), Bolotov et al. (2020), Múrria et al. (2020), Bolotov et al. (2020), Klunzinger et al. (2020)
Margaritifera margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1940)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1969), Falkner et al. (2001), Falkner et al. (2002)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritiferaHaas (1969), Bolotov et al. (2016)

Margaritana durrovensis Phillips, 1928
Phillips, 1928, Proc. Malac. Soc. London 18: 71, pls. 3-5.
Bloomer, 1928, Proc. Malac. Soc. London 18: 74, text fig.
Type(s): SYNTYPES BMNH_1928-10-23-1-2, River Nore, Durrow, Queen’s Co., Ireland.

Margaritana durrovensisPhillips (1928)
Margaritifera margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1940)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1969)
Margaritifera margaritiferaZiuganov et al. (1994), Araujo et al. (2009), Vinarski & Kantor (2016), Lopes-Lima et al. (2017)
Margaritifera margaritifera durrovensisIUCN (1996), Walker et al. (2006)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera durrovensisFalkner et al. (2001)

Unio elongata Lamarck, 1819
Pennant, 1777, British Zool. 4: pl. 43, fig. 18.
Lamarck, 1819, Hist. Natur. Anim. sans Vert. 6: 70, sp. 2.
Type(s): POSSIBLE SYNTYPE MNHN_MPL_0028, Habite dans les rivières de l’Angleterre, et probablement du nord de l’Europe [Lives in the rivers of England and Northern Europe probably].

Unio elongataLamarck (1819), Nilsson (1822), Jay (1835)
Unio margaritiferaPfeiffer (1821), Lea (1834)
Unio margaritiferusMenke (1828)
Unio elongatusWood (1828), Sowerby (1868)
Alasmodonta margaritiferaFerussac (1835)
Unio margaritiferRossmässler (1835), Küster (1855)
Margarita (Margaritana) margaritiferaLea (1836)
Margaritana elongataSwainson (1840), Locard (1889), Fagot (1892), Locard (1893), Dumas (1895), Locard (1899)
Margaron (Margaritana) margaritiferaLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Margaritana margaritiferaDupuy (1852), Drouët (1898), Simpson (1900), Preston (1912), Simpson (1914), Germain (1931)
Damaris elongataLeach (1852)
Unio (Baphia) margaritiferaMörch (1853)
Unio (Margaritana) margaritifer var. C elongatusMoquin-Tandon (1855)
Unio (Margaritana) margaritiferDrouët (1857)
Margaritana margaritifera forma elongataWesterlund (1890)
Margaritana (Margaritiferana) elongataFagot (1893)
Margaritifera margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1940)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1969)
Margaritifera margaritiferaZiuganov et al. (1994), Graf (2007), Araujo et al. (2009), Watters et al. (2009), Kantor et al. (2010), Fauna Europaea (2012), Bolotov et al. (2013), Vinarski & Kantor (2016)
Margaritifera elongataBogatov et al. (2003), Starobogatov et al. (2004), Kantor & Sysoev (2005)

Margaritifera borealis Westerlund, 1871
Westerlund, 1871, Nova Reg. Soc. Scient. 8: 168.

Margaritifera borealisWesterlund (1871), Bogatov et al. (2003), Starobogatov et al. (2004), Kantor & Sysoev (2005)
Margaritana margaritifera forma borealisWesterlund (1890)
Margaritifera margaritiferaGraf (2007), Kantor et al. (2010), Bolotov et al. (2013), Vinarski & Kantor (2016)

Unio brunneus Bonhomme, 1840
Bonhomme, 1840, Mém. Aveyron 2: 460.

Unio brunneusBonhomme (1840)
Margaron (Unio) litoralisLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Margaritana margaritiferaDupuy (1852), Westerlund (1890), Germain (1931)
Unio (Margaritana) margaritifer var. D minorMoquin-Tandon (1855)
Unio (Margaritana) margaritifer var. minorDrouët (1857)
Unio litoralisReeve (1865)
Margaritana brunneaLocard (1889), Locard (1893)
Margaritifera margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1940)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1969)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera brunneaFalkner et al. (2001), Falkner et al. (2002)
Margaritifera margaritiferaAraujo et al. (2009), Vinarski & Kantor (2016), Lopes-Lima et al. (2017)

Margaritana margaritifera parvula Haas, 1908
Haas, 1908, Beitr. Kenntn. Mittleleurop. Najadeen, Beilage zu... 1908 (1): 15.
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Mya margaritifera Linnaeus, 1758)
Type(s): LECTOTYPE SMF_4982, Ulfenbach bei Affolterbach.

Margaritana margaritifera parvulaHaas (1908), Haas (1924)
Margaritifera margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1940)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1969)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera parvulaFalkner et al. (2001)
Margaritifera margaritiferaVinarski & Kantor (2016), Lopes-Lima et al. (2017)

Mya margaritifera Da Costa, 1778
Da Costa, 1778, British Conch.: 225, pl. 15, fig. 3.
(reference to Mya margaritifera Linnaeus, 1758)

Mya margaritiferaDa Costa (1778), Turton (1807), Dillwyn (1817)
Unio elongataLamarck (1819)
Unio margaritiferusMenke (1828)
Margaritana elongataSwainson (1840), Locard (1889), Locard (1899)
Margaron (Margaritana) margaritiferaLea (1852), Lea (1870)

Margaritana fluviatilis Schumacher, 1817
Schumacher, 1816, Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forhandl. Kjobehhaven 1816: 7. [nomen nudum]
Schumacher, 1817, Essai. Nouv. Syst.: 124, pl. 10, fig. 4.

Margaritana fluviatilisSchumacher (1817)
Margartifera fluviatilisSchumacher (1816)
Margarita (Margaritana) margaritiferaLea (1836)
Margaron (Margaritana) margaritiferaLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Margaritana) margaritiferDrouët (1857)
Margaritana margaritiferaLocard (1882), Westerlund (1890)
Margaritifera margaritiferaHabe (1977), Ziuganov et al. (1994), Watters et al. (2009), Vinarski & Kantor (2016)

Alasmodonta arcuata Barnes, 1823
Barnes, 1823, Amer. J. Sci. 6 (1-2): 277, pl. 12, fig. 20.

Alasmodonta arcuataBarnes (1823), Ravenel (1834), Linsley (1845)
Unio margaritiferaLea (1834)
Alasmodonta margaritiferaFerussac (1835)
Margarita (Margaritana) margaritiferaLea (1836)
Margaritana arcuataSwainson (1840), Stimpson (1851), Agassiz (1852), Conrad (1853), Küster (1862)
Margaron (Margaritana) margaritiferaLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Margaritana margaritiferaDupuy (1852), Simpson (1900), Hannibal (1912), Preston (1912), Simpson (1914), Frierson (1927)
Unio margaritiferKüster (1855)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1969)
Margaritifera margaritiferaZiuganov et al. (1994), Strayer & Jirka (1997), Araujo et al. (2009), Watters et al. (2009), Vinarski & Kantor (2016)

Unio sinuata W.C. Pfeiffer, 1825
W.C. Pfeiffer, 1825, Naturgesch. Dtsch. Land-Süßw. Moll. 2: .
(misidentified reference to Unio sinuata Lamarck, 1819)

Unio sinuataW.C. Pfeiffer (1825)
Unio margaritiferRossmässler (1835), Küster (1855)
Margarita (Margaritana) margaritiferaLea (1836)
Unio margaritifer var. minorSchlüter (1838)
Unio (Margaritana) margaritiferDrouët (1857)
Margaritana margaritiferaClessin (1877), Westerlund (1890), Simpson (1900), Preston (1912), Simpson (1914)

Unio elongata Michaud, 1831
Michaud, 1831, Compl. Hist. Nat. Moll., Draparnaud: 113, pl. 16, fig. 29.
(reference to Unio elongata Lamarck, 1819)

Unio elongataMichaud (1831)
Unio margaritifer var. minorRossmässler (1835)
Unio margaritiferKüster (1855)
Unio sinuataSowerby (1868)
Margaritana michaudiLocard (1889)
Margaritana margaritiferaWesterlund (1890), Germain (1931)
Unio (sec. Lymnium) batavusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)

Unio roissyi Michaud, 1831
Michaud, 1831, Compl. Hist. Nat. Moll., Draparnaud: 112, pl. 16, figs. 27-28.

Unio roissyiMichaud (1831)
Alasmodonta margaritiferaFerussac (1835)
Margarita (Margaritana) margaritiferaLea (1836)
Margaritana margaritiferaDupuy (1852), Westerlund (1890), Simpson (1900), Preston (1912), Simpson (1914), Germain (1931)
Unio (Margaritana) margaritifer var. B roissyiMoquin-Tandon (1855)
Unio (Margaritana) margaritifer var. roissyiDrouët (1857)
Unio sinuataSowerby (1868)
Margaron (Margaritana) margaritiferaLea (1870)
Margaritana roissyiLocard (1889), Locard (1893), Rochebrune (1903)
Margaritifera margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1940)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1969)
Margaritifera margaritiferaZiuganov et al. (1994), Watters et al. (2009), Araujo et al. (2009), Vinarski & Kantor (2016)

Unio margaritifer var. minor Rossmässler, 1835
Rossmässler, 1835, Icon. Land- und Süssw.-Moll. 1 (2): 21, pl. 9, fig. 129.
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Mya margaritifera Linnaeus, 1758)

Unio margaritifer var. minorRossmässler (1835), Schlüter (1838)
Unio (Margaritana) margaritifer var. D minorMoquin-Tandon (1855)
Unio (Margaritana) margaritifer var. minorDrouët (1857)
Margaritana margaritiferaDrouët (1881), Simpson (1900), Preston (1912), Simpson (1914), Germain (1931)
Margaritana brunneaLocard (1889)
Margaritifera margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1940)
Margaritifera margaritiferaWatters et al. (2009), Vinarski & Kantor (2016)

Unio rivalis Lea, 1836
‘Zeig.’ Lea, 1836, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 46.
(intro'd as syn of Mya margaritifera Linnaeus, 1758)

Unio rivalisLea (1836)
Margarita (Margaritana) margaritiferaLea (1836)
Margaron (Margaritana) margaritiferaLea (1852), Lea (1870)

Unio tristis Morelet, 1845
Morelet, 1845, Moll. Terr. Fluv. Portugal: 107, pl. 31, fig. 2.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE BMNH_93-2-4-1961, la Tamega, pres a Amarante, Portugal.

Unio tristisMorelet (1845)
Margaron (Unio) batavusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Margaritana tristisBourguignat (1876)
Margaritana elongataLocard (1899)
Margaritana margaritiferaSimpson (1900), Preston (1912), Simpson (1914)
Margaritifera margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1940)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1969)
Margaritifera margaritiferaZiuganov et al. (1994), Watters et al. (2009), Araujo et al. (2009), Vinarski & Kantor (2016)

Unio roisii Lea, 1852
‘Mich.’ Lea, 1852, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 40.
(error for Unio roissyi Michaud, 1831)

Unio roisiiLea (1852)

Unio raveneliana Chenu, 1859
‘Lea’ Chenu, 1859, Manuel Conchyl. 2: 144, fig. 714.
(misidentified reference to Unio ravenelianus Lea, 1834)

Unio ravenelianaChenu (1859)
Margaritana margaritiferaSimpson (1900), Preston (1912), Simpson (1914)

Unio reyniesii Lea, 1870
‘Mich.’ Lea, 1870, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 64.
(error for Unio roissyi Michaud, 1831)

Unio reyniesiiLea (1870)

Margaritana compressa Westerlund, 1873
Westerlund, 1873, Fauna Moll. Terr. Fluv. Suec. Norv. Dan. (2): ??. [infra-subsp.]

Margaritana compressaWesterlund (1873)
Margaritana margaritifera forma compressaWesterlund (1890)
Margaritifera margaritiferaVinarski & Kantor (2016)

Margaritana ventricosa Westerlund, 1873
Westerlund, 1873, Fauna Moll. Terr. Fluv. Suec. Norv. Dan. (2): ??. [infra-subsp.]

Margaritana ventricosaWesterlund (1873)
Margaritana margaritifera forma ventricosaWesterlund (1890)
Margaritifera margaritiferaVinarski & Kantor (2016)

Margaritana freytagi Kobelt, 1886
Kobelt, 1886, Jb. Nassau. Ver. Naturk. 39: 98, pl. 8, figs. 1-4.
Kobelt, 1886, Icon. Land- und Süssw.-Moll. 2: 45, pl. 55, figs. 291-294.
Type(s): LECTOTYPE SMF_4984, Nister b. Hachenburg.

Margaritana freytagiKobelt (1886), Kobelt (1886), Westerlund (1890)
Margaritifera margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1940)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1969)
Margaritifera margaritiferaZiuganov et al. (1994), Araujo et al. (2009), Vinarski & Kantor (2016)

Margaritana michaudi Locard, 1889
Michaud, 1831, Compl. Hist. Nat. Moll., Draparnaud: 113, pl. 16, fig. 29 [as ‘Unio elongata’].
Locard, 1889, Contr. Faune Malacol. Franc. 13: 123 [17], 180 [74].
Locard, 1893, Coqu. Eau Douce Saumâtre France: 150.
Type(s): PARALECTOTYPE MNHN_22368, Vire [Calvados].

Margaritana michaudiLocard (1889), Locard (1893), Dumas (1895)
Margaritana margaritiferaWesterlund (1890), Germain (1931)
Margaritifera margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1940)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1969)
Margaritifera margaritiferaZiuganov et al. (1994), Araujo et al. (2009), Vinarski & Kantor (2016)

Margaritana pyrenaica Locard, 1889
Bourguignat in Locard, 1889, Contr. Faune Malacol. Franc. 13: 123 [17], 181 [75].
‘Bourguignat’ Locard, 1893, Coqu. Eau Douce Saumâtre France: 150.
Type(s): SYNTYPE MNHN_22478, Carcenac (Aveyron).

Margaritana pyrenaicaLocard (1889), Locard (1893)
Margaritana margaritiferaWesterlund (1890), Germain (1931)
Margaritifera margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1940)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1969)
Margaritifera margaritiferaZiuganov et al. (1994), Araujo et al. (2009), Vinarski & Kantor (2016)

Margaritana margaritifera forma jetschini Westerlund, 1890
Westerlund, 1890, Fauna Paläarct. Binnenconch. 2(7): 185. [infra-subsp.]
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Mya margaritifera Linnaeus, 1758)

Margaritana margaritifera forma jetschiniWesterlund (1890)

Margaritana alleni Locard, 1899
Castro in Locard, 1899, Conchyliol. Portug.: 212.

Margaritana alleniLocard (1899)
Margaritifera margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1940)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1969)
Margaritifera margaritiferaZiuganov et al. (1994), Araujo et al. (2009), Vinarski & Kantor (2016)

Margaritana margaritifera var. siluriana Bloomer, 1927
Bloomer, 1927, Proc. Malac. Soc. London 17: 211.
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Mya margaritifera Linnaeus, 1758)

Margaritana margaritifera var. silurianaBloomer (1927)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1969)
Margaritifera margaritiferaVinarski & Kantor (2016)

Margaritana durrovensis Bloomer, 1928
Bloomer, 1928, Proc. Malac. Soc. London 18: 74, text fig.
(reference to Margaritana durrovensis Phillips, 1928)

Margaritana durrovensisBloomer (1928)
Margaritifera (s.s.) margaritifera margaritiferaHaas (1969)
Margaritifera margaritiferaFauna Europaea (2012)

Margaritana durrowensis Haas, 1940
‘Phillips’ Haas, 1940, Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 24: 120.
(error for Margaritana durrovensis Phillips, 1928)

Margaritana durrowensisHaas (1940)

Margaritana tenerus Ziuganov et al., 1994
Ziuganov et al., 1994, Freshw. Pearl Muss. & Fish: 59.
(intro'd as syn of Mya margaritifera Linnaeus, 1758)

Margaritana tenerusZiuganov et al. (1994)
Margaritifera margaritiferaZiuganov et al. (1994)

Margaritana vulgaris Ziuganov et al., 1994
Ziuganov et al., 1994, Freshw. Pearl Muss. & Fish: 59.
(intro'd as syn of Mya margaritifera Linnaeus, 1758)

Margaritana vulgarisZiuganov et al. (1994)
Margaritifera margaritiferaZiuganov et al. (1994)

Margaritana pirenaica Vinarski & Kantor, 2016
‘Boruguignat in Locard’ Vinarski & Kantor, 2016, Analyt. Cat. Fr. Brack. Moll. Russia: 59.
(error for Margaritana pyrenaica Locard, 1889)

Margaritana pirenaicaVinarski & Kantor (2016)

Page updated: 16:18:47 Wed 01 Jul 2020

 
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