Page last updated
12 November 2014
Unionoida cum Grano Salis
The Unionoida cum Grano Salis pages are occasionally updated to reflect taxonomic progress. The purpose of this page is to record the changes that were made to the pages with each update.
15 November 2014
During the summer and fall of 2014, our effort was spent on getting all of our taxonomic data into shape for submission to the ITIS database. The nuts and bolts of most of this work had been completed during the previous year, but the results of a couple new publications had to be incorporated.
- Pereira, D., M.C.D. Mansur, L.D.S. Duarte, A.S. de Oliveira, D.M. Pimpão et al. 2014. Bivalve distribution in hydrographic regions in South America: historical overview and conservation. Hydrobiologia 735: 15-44.
- Marshall, B.A., M.C. Fenwick & P.A. Ritchie. 2014. New Zealand Recent Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida). Molluscan Research 34: 181-200.
- Walker, K.F., H.A. Jones & M.W. Klunzinger. 2014. Bivalves in a bottleneck: Taxonomy, phylogeography and conservation of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) in Australasia. Hydrobiologia 735: 61-79.
- Zhuang, Z. & H. Jing. 2013. The Freshwater Bivalves of China. ConchBooks, Harxheim, Germany. 198 pp.
Updates to Nearctic Richness. — The region gained a single species by elevating Quadrula nobilis from synonymy. This increased the total richness from 301 to 302.
Updates to Neotropical Richness. — Neotropical species richness increased from 185 to 217 (+32 species). Species from several genera were pulled from synonymy and are now recognized as valid: Castalia crosseana, C. nehringi, C. orinocoensis, Castaliella quadrata, C. schombergiana, 21 species of Diplodon, Anodontites ihering, A. lucida, A. schombergianus, A. solenidea, Monocondylaea costulata, M. franciscana, M. juspidea, M. parchappii, and Tamsiella schoteriana. However, three formerly recognized species were demoted to synonymy: Anodontites napoensis, Rhidipidodonta demeraraensis, and R. guayanensis. In fact, all the Rhipidodonta were moved to Diplodon.
Updates to Afrotropical Richness. — 79 species, no change.
Updates to Palearctic Richness. — The number of Palearctic freshwater mussel species increased from 56 to 57 by removing Nodularia mongolica from the synonymy of Unio crassus.
Updates to Indotropical Richness. — Our new assessment of the Indotropics had a net 6 fewer species, dropping from 225 to 219. Although five newly described species were added (Acuticosta jianghanensis, Lamprotula linae, Lanceolaria yueyingae, Sinanodonta qingyuani, and Solenaia neotriangularis) and three more were pulled from synonymy (Aculamprotula grandidens, Lamellidens rhadinaeus, and Parreysia viridula), 14 more were subtracted through synonymy: Acuticosta ovata, Arconaia huaihensis, A. mutica, Lamprotula microstricta, L. leleci, L. mansuyi, Lepidodesma aligera, Chamberlainia paviei, Physunio semialatus, Pseudodon solidus, Scabies chinensis, S. longata, Solenaia oleivorus, and Unionetta fabagina.
Updates to Australasian Richness. — Australasia lost three species, dropping to 30. Both Cucumerunio websteri and Echyridella lucasi were synonymized with other valid species, and Velesunio ovatus was removed outright as a nomen dubium.
Overall, the world gained 25 new freshwater mussels between 11 August 2013 and 12 November 2014, increasing the global species richness from 862 to 887. Most of the increases came from South America and China.
11 August 2013
During the summer of 2013, we endeavored to prepare our taxonomic data for inclusion in the ITIS database. This resulted in an update of the data in the MUSSELpdb and an overdue over-haul of these Unio cum Grano Salis pages. Some of the works that precipitated the changes listed below are:
- Campbell, D.C. & C. Lydeard. 2012. The genera of the Pleurobemini (Bivalvia: Unionidae: Ambleminae). American Malacological Bulletin 30: 19-38.
- Graf, D.L. & K.S. Cummings. 2011. Freshwater mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionoida) richness and endemism in the ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar based on comprehensive museum sampling. Hydrobiologia 678: 17-36 + supplemental material.
- Inoue, K., D.M. Hayes, J.L. Harris & A.D. Christian. 2013. Phylogenetic and morphometric analyses reveal ecophenotypic plasticity in freshwater mussels Obovaria jacksoniana and Villosa arkansasensis (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Ecology and Evolution doi: 10.1002/ece3.649: 14 pp.
- Ouyang, J., X. Wu, S. Ouyang, S. Li & D. Zhao. 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of some Chinese freshwater Unionidae based on mitochondrial COI sequences. Journal of Conchology 40(5): 543-548.
- Williams, J.D., R.S. Butler & J.M. Wisniewski. 2011. Annotated synonymy of the Recent freshwater mussel taxa of the families Margaritiferidae and Unionidae described from Florida and drainages contiguous with Alabama and Georgia. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 51(1): 1-84.
Nearctic. — Overall, North America lost 1 species, bringing the total richness down to 301. However, this net change obscures a number of changes. Epioblasma rangiana, Elliptio occulta and Truncilla cognata were added, and Elliptio buckleyi, Elliptio waltoni, Obovaria jacksoniana and Anodontoides denigrata were removed from the list of Nearctic taxa. In addition, Villosa arkansasensis and V. choctawensis moved to the genus Obovaria, Pleurobema gibberum moved to Pleuronaia, and Quincuncina mitchelli moved to Fusconaia. All of these taxa belong to the family Unionidae.
Neotropical. — Cental and South America had a net gain of one species, to 185. Anodontites depexus and A. pittieri were added, and Truncilla cognata was removed to the Nearctic region. Anodontites belongs to the family Mycetopodidae.
Afrotropical. — Aspatharia mabillei, A. tawaii and A. tristis were removed from the Africa list, bringing the species richness down to 79. The genus Aspatharia belongs to the Iridinidae.
Palearctic. — The Palearctic region held steady at 56 species. Microcondylaea bonellii is now listed as M. compressa.
Indotropical. — The Indotropical region had a net gainfive species, up to 225. Lamprotula leleci, Solenaia carinatus, S. oleivorus, S. rivularis, and Lamellidens mainwaringi were pulled from the syonymy of other Indotropical freshwater mussel species. Lanceolaria bilirata was split from L. oxyrhyncha (now restricted to the Palearctic region). All of these species belong to the Unionidae.
Australasia. — No change, 33 species.
There was a net gain of 3 species (859 + 3 = 862) to our tally of the global diversity of freshwater mussels. In addition, we made 17 corrections to spelling, publication dates, species order, etc. that didn't change the tallies.
4 October 2011
The occasion of updating the classification used on this site led to an update of Unionoida cum Grano Salis. The two major works that led to the latest changes are:
- Khalloufi et al. 2011. The unionids of Tunisia: taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships, with description of Unio ravoisieri Deshayes, 1847 and U. durieui Deshayes, 1847. Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 103-115.
- Whelan, N.V., A.J. Geneva & D.L. Graf. 2011. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of tropical freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionoida) resolves the position of Coelatura and supports a monophyletic Unionidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 504-514.
Nearctic. — Gained 1 species because of the introduced Sinanodonta woodiana, up to 302.
Neotropical. — Went from 183 to 184 with the addition of the introduced Sinanodonta woodiana.
Afrotropical. — No change (82).
Palearctic. — Gained 1, up to 56. Unio durieui was added to Europe, as was the introduced Sinanodonta woodiana (known before from elsewhere in the Palearctic).
Indotropical. — No change (220).
Australasia. — No change (33).
5 January 2011
We have updated our results to reflect progress published since our original checklist (Graf & Cummings, 2007). Some of the key works include:
- Araujo, R., J. Reis et al. 2009. Las náyades de la península Ibérica. Iberus 27: 7-72.
- Bogan, A.E. 2010. Mollusca-Bivalvia Checklist. Freshwater Animal Biodiversity Project. http://fada.biodiversity.be/ [This website lists all the freshwater bivalves tallied in Bogan (2007). The freshwater mussels list largely follows our checklist (Graf & Cummings, 2007).]
- faunaeur.org. 2010. Fauna Europa. http://www.faunaeur.org.
- Kondo, T. 2008. Monograph of Unionoida in Japan (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Special Publication of the Malacological Society of Japan (3). 69 pp.
- Williams, J.D., A.E. Bogan, J.T. Garner. 2008. Freshwater Mussels of Alabama and the Mobile Basin in Georgia, Mississippi and Tennessee. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 908 pp.
Nearctic. — Lost a net 1 species, dropping from 302 to 301.
Neotropical. — Lost 3, dropping from 186 to 183.
Afrotropical. — No change.
Palearctic. Gained 7, jumping from 48 to 55.
Indotropical. — Gained 1, going from 219 to 220.
Australasian. — no change.
Overall, there was a net gain of four species since the last update, raising the total to 858.
- Bogan, A.E. 2007. Global diversity of freshwater mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595: 139-147.
- Graf, D.L. & K.S. Cummings. 2007. Review of the systematics and global diversity of freshwater mussel species (Bivalvia: Unionoida). Journal of Molluscan Studies 73: 291-314.