MUSSELp
 
MUSSELpdb
 
 
Taxonomy
 
 
Geography
 
 
 

Page last updated
Wed 18 Jan 2023

The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves)

FM(U)otW(aolcb) is the web version of the MUSSEL Project Database. Follow the links to browse the data or use the custom Google search field. Either way, you win!

Cladomics pages are experimental — even more so than the rest of this site!

The purpose of the cladomics pages for each genus and family-group level taxon is to provide statistics and references indicating the extent to which published phylogenetic work supports the classification used here.

The Cladomics Summary provides an overview of the number of studies that have included terminal species representing this taxon as well as an indication of how frequently it has been recovered as monophyletic.

Following the summary, the available published clades representing the taxon are listed.

For more information, visit the Cladomics FARQ (frequently asked rhetorical questions) page. Abbreviations for the various statistics are explained on the FARQ!

Search the database pages:

Bivalvia | Unionoida | Etherioidea

family IRIDINIDAE Swainson, 1840: cladomics
     2 subfamilies

Cladomics Summary

number of species = 53
number of subtaxa (rank: subfamily) = 2

analyzed in 59 cladograms in 33 publications
maximum number of terminal species in an analysis = 5, mean = 2.12
maximum number of subtaxa (subfamily) in an analysis = 2, mean = 1.39

Basic Monophyly

number of cladograms that test basic monophyly (i.e., more than 1 included species) = 35
maximum number of included species = 5, mean = 2.89
maximum number of subtaxa (subfamily) = 2, mean = 1.66
proportion of cladograms that support basic monophyly = 0.46

Rigorous Monophyly

number of cladograms that test rigorous monophyly = 23
(Rigorous monophyly refers to cladograms with terminal species representing more than one subtaxon (subfamily) taxon and at least one rigorous outgroup (family).
maximum number of included species = 5, mean = 3.35
maximum number of subtaxa (subfamily) = 2, mean = 2.0
proportion of cladograms that support rigorous monophyly = 0.17


Huang et al., 2019, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 10 7 2 194 5 2 0.0

*** Top Monophyly Cladogram ***

     +-------- Anodontites_trapesialis
  +--+                                
  |  |  +----- Mutela_rostrata **        
  |  +--+                             
  |     |  +-- Mutela_dubia **           
  |     +--+                          
--+        +-- Mutela_hargeri **         
  |                                   
  |     +----- Mycetopoda_siliquosa   
  |  +--+                             
  |  |  |  +-- Anodontites_elongata   
  |  |  +--+                          
  +--+     +-- Lamproscapha_ensiformis
     |                                
     |  +----- Etheria_elliptica      
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
        +--+                          
           +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   

Walker et al., 2006, fig. 6

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 9 6 2 35 6 2 13.0

*** Top Sister-Group Cladogram ***

                 +-- Mutela_dubia **           
  +--------------+                          
  |              +-- Mutela_rostrata **        
--+                                         
  |  +-------------- Etheria_elliptica      
  |  |                                      
  +--+  +----------- Chambardia_rubens **      
     |  |                                   
     +--+  +-------- Mulleria_rivoli        
        |  |                                
        +--+     +-- Anodontites_guanarensis
           |  +--+                          
           |  |  +-- Anodontites_trigona    
           +--+                             
              |  +-- Tamsiella_tamsiana     
              +--+                          
                 +-- Monocondylaea_minuana  

Huang et al., 2019, fig. S3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 10 7 2 192 5 2 0.0
     +-------- Anodontites_trapesialis
  +--+                                
  |  |  +----- Mutela_rostrata **        
  |  +--+                             
  |     |  +-- Mutela_dubia **           
  |     +--+                          
--+        +-- Mutela_hargeri **         
  |                                   
  |     +----- Mycetopoda_siliquosa   
  |  +--+                             
  |  |  |  +-- Anodontites_elongata   
  |  |  +--+                          
  +--+     +-- Lamproscapha_ensiformis
     |                                
     |  +----- Etheria_elliptica      
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
        +--+                          
           +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   

Huang et al., 2019, fig. S4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
5 10 6 2 194 5 2 3.0
  +----------- Etheria_elliptica      
  |                                   
  |        +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
  +--------+                          
  |        +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
  |                                   
--+     +----- Mycetopoda_siliquosa   
  +-----+                             
  |     |  +-- Anodontites_elongata   
  |     +--+                          
  |        +-- Lamproscapha_ensiformis
  |                                   
  |  +-------- Anodontites_trapesialis
  +--+                                
     |  +----- Mutela_hargeri **         
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Mutela_dubia **           
        +--+                          
           +-- Mutela_rostrata **        

Graf & Cummings, 2006, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 2 43 6 2 7.0
        +----- Etheria_elliptica      
  +-----+                             
  |     |  +-- Mulleria_rivoli        
  |     +--+                          
  |        +-- Pseudomulleria_dalyi   
  |                                   
--+     +----- Monocondylaea_minuana  
  |  +--+                             
  |  |  |  +-- Anodontites_trigona    
  |  |  +--+                          
  |  |     +-- Anodontites_guanarensis
  +--+                                
     |     +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
     |  +--+                          
     |  |  +-- Aspatharia_rugifera **    
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Mutela_dubia **           
        +--+                          
           +-- Mutela_rostrata **        

Hoeh et al., 2009, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 1 2 43 6 2 8.0
           +----- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
           |                             
  +--------+----- Aspatharia_rugifera **    
  |        |                             
  |        |  +-- Mutela_rostrata **        
--+        +--+                          
  |           +-- Mutela_dubia **           
  |                                      
  |  +----------- Etheria_elliptica      
  +--+                                   
     |  +-------- Mulleria_rivoli        
     +--+                                
        |  +----- Monocondylaea_minuana  
        +--+                             
           |  +-- Anodontites_trigona    
           +--+                          
              +-- Anodontites_guanarensis

Hoeh et al., 2009, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 2 42 6 2 7.0
           +-- Etheria_elliptica      
  +--------+                          
  |        +-- Mulleria_rivoli        
  |                                   
  |     +----- Monocondylaea_minuana  
--+  +--+                             
  |  |  |  +-- Anodontites_trigona    
  |  |  +--+                          
  |  |     +-- Anodontites_guanarensis
  +--+                                
     |     +-- Mutela_rostrata **        
     |  +--+                          
     |  |  +-- Mutela_dubia **           
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
        +--+                          
           +-- Aspatharia_rugifera **    

Hoeh et al., 2009, fig. 5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 2 42 6 2 7.0
  +----------- Etheria_elliptica      
  |                                   
  |     +----- Monocondylaea_minuana  
--+  +--+                             
  |  |  |  +-- Anodontites_trigona    
  |  |  +--+                          
  |  |     +-- Anodontites_guanarensis
  +--+                                
     |     +-- Mutela_rostrata **        
     |  +--+                          
     |  |  +-- Mutela_dubia **           
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
        +--+                          
           +-- Aspatharia_rugifera **    

Whelan et al., 2011, fig. 1 ML

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 5 2 2 33 2 1 6.0
        +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
  +-----+                          
  |     +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
--+                                
  |  +----- Mutela_rostrata **        
  +--+                             
     |  +-- Mycetopoda_siliquosa   
     +--+                          
        +-- Anodontites_elongata   

Whelan et al., 2011, fig. 1 MP

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 5 2 2 33 2 1 6.0
        +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
  +-----+                          
  |     +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
--+                                
  |  +----- Mutela_rostrata **        
  +--+                             
     |  +-- Mycetopoda_siliquosa   
     +--+                          
        +-- Anodontites_elongata   

Lopes-Lima et al., 2017, fig. 1-2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 6 4 2 78 3 2 6.0
  +----------- Mutela_rostrata **        
  |                                   
--+        +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
  |  +-----+                          
  |  |     +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
  +--+                                
     |  +----- Etheria_elliptica      
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Anodontites_elongata   
        +--+                          
           +-- Mycetopoda_siliquosa   

Combosch et al., 2017, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 6 3 2 12 3 2 7.0
           +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
  +--------+                          
  |        +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
--+                                   
  |  +-------- Etheria_elliptica      
  +--+                                
     |  +----- Mutela_hargeri **         
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Anodontites_elongata   
        +--+                          
           +-- Lamproscapha_ensiformis

Combosch et al., 2017, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 6 3 2 12 3 2 7.0
           +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
  +--------+                          
  |        +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
--+                                   
  |  +-------- Etheria_elliptica      
  +--+                                
     |  +----- Mutela_hargeri **         
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Anodontites_elongata   
        +--+                          
           +-- Lamproscapha_ensiformis

Huang et al., 2018, fig. 3, 5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 6 4 2 26 3 2 6.0
  +----------- Mutela_hargeri **         
  |                                   
--+        +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
  |  +-----+                          
  |  |     +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
  +--+                                
     |  +----- Etheria_elliptica      
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Anodontites_elongata   
        +--+                          
           +-- Lamproscapha_ensiformis

Lopes-Lima et al., 2018, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 6 4 2 25 3 2 6.0
  +----------- Mutela_hargeri **         
  |                                   
--+        +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
  |  +-----+                          
  |  |     +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
  +--+                                
     |  +----- Etheria_elliptica      
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Lamproscapha_ensiformis
        +--+                          
           +-- Anodontites_elongata   

Lopes-Lima et al., 2018, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 6 4 2 25 3 2 6.0
  +----------- Mutela_hargeri **         
  |                                   
--+        +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
  |  +-----+                          
  |  |     +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
  +--+                                
     |  +----- Etheria_elliptica      
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Anodontites_elongata   
        +--+                          
           +-- Lamproscapha_ensiformis

Wu et al., 2020, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 6 4 2 31 3 2 6.0
  +----------- Mutela_hargeri **         
  |                                   
--+        +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
  |  +-----+                          
  |  |     +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
  +--+                                
     |  +----- Etheria_elliptica      
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Anodontites_elongata   
        +--+                          
           +-- Lamproscapha_ensiformis

Wu et al., 2020, fig. S1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 6 4 2 31 3 2 6.0
  +----------- Mutela_hargeri **         
  |                                   
--+        +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
  |  +-----+                          
  |  |     +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
  +--+                                
     |  +----- Etheria_elliptica      
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Anodontites_elongata   
        +--+                          
           +-- Lamproscapha_ensiformis

Sano et al., 2020, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 6 4 2 72 3 2 6.0
  +----------- Mutela_hargeri **         
  |                                   
--+        +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
  |  +-----+                          
  |  |     +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
  +--+                                
     |  +----- Etheria_elliptica      
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Anodontites_elongata   
        +--+                          
           +-- Lamproscapha_ensiformis

Sano et al., 2020, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 6 4 2 72 3 2 6.0
  +----------- Mutela_hargeri **         
  |                                   
--+        +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
  |  +-----+                          
  |  |     +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
  +--+                                
     |  +----- Etheria_elliptica      
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Anodontites_elongata   
        +--+                          
           +-- Lamproscapha_ensiformis

Sano et al., 2020, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 6 4 2 72 3 2 6.0
  +----------- Mutela_hargeri **         
  |                                   
--+        +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
  |  +-----+                          
  |  |     +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
  +--+                                
     |  +----- Etheria_elliptica      
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Anodontites_elongata   
        +--+                          
           +-- Lamproscapha_ensiformis

Graf, 2000, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 16 4 2 --
        +-- Mutela[1] **  
  +-----+              
  |     +-- Mutela[2] **  
--+                    
  |  +----- Anodontites
  |  |                 
  +--+----- Mycetopoda 
     |                 
     |  +-- Etheria    
     +--+              
        +-- Mulleria   

Bogan & Hoeh, 2000, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 32 6 2 --
              +-- Mutela_dubia **           
  +-----------+                          
  |           +-- Mutela_rostrata **        
--+                                      
  |  +----------- Etheria_elliptica      
  +--+                                   
     |  +-------- Mulleria_rivoli        
     +--+                                
        |  +----- Monocondylaea_minuana  
        +--+                             
           |  +-- Anodontites_trigona    
           +--+                          
              +-- Anodontites_guanarensis

Hoeh et al., 2001, fig. 14.2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 29 3 1 --
     +-- Mutela_dubia **           
  +--+                          
  |  +-- Mutela_rostrata **        
--+                             
  |  +-- Anodontites_guanarensis
  |  |                          
  +--+-- Anodontites_trigona    
     |                          
     +-- Monocondylaea_minuana  

Hoeh et al., 2001, fig. 14.4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 29 3 1 --
        +-- Mutela_dubia **           
  +-----+                          
  |     +-- Mutela_rostrata **        
--+                                
  |  +----- Monocondylaea_minuana  
  +--+                             
     |  +-- Anodontites_guanarensis
     +--+                          
        +-- Anodontites_trigona    

Hoeh et al., 2002, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 29 3 1 --
        +-- Mutela_dubia **           
  +-----+                          
  |     +-- Mutela_rostrata **        
--+                                
  |  +----- Monocondylaea_minuana  
  +--+                             
     |  +-- Anodontites_guanarensis
     +--+                          
        +-- Anodontites_trigona    

Roe & Hoeh, 2003, fig. 4.2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 29 3 1 --
        +-- Mutela_dubia **           
  +-----+                          
  |     +-- Mutela_rostrata **        
--+                                
  |  +----- Monocondylaea_minuana  
  +--+                             
     |  +-- Anodontites_guanarensis
     +--+                          
        +-- Anodontites_trigona    

Roe & Hoeh, 2003, fig. 4.3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 29 3 1 --
        +-- Mutela_dubia **           
  +-----+                          
  |     +-- Mutela_rostrata **        
--+                                
  |  +----- Monocondylaea_minuana  
  +--+                             
     |  +-- Anodontites_guanarensis
     +--+                          
        +-- Anodontites_trigona    

Bolotov et al., 2016, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 28 2 2 --
  +-------- Anodontites_elongata   
--+                                
  |  +----- Etheria_elliptica      
  +--+                             
     |  +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
     +--+                          
        +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   

Bolotov et al., 2016, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 28 2 2 --
  +-------- Anodontites_elongata   
--+                                
  |  +----- Etheria_elliptica      
  +--+                             
     |  +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
     +--+                          
        +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **

Bolotov et al., 2017, fig. S1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 136 2 2 --
  +-------- Anodontites_elongata   
--+                                
  |  +----- Etheria_elliptica      
  +--+                             
     |  +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   
     +--+                          
        +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **

Bolotov et al., 2017, fig. S2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 136 2 2 --
     +-- Anodontites_elongata   
  +--+                          
  |  +-- Etheria_elliptica      
--+                             
  |  +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
  +--+                          
     +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   

Lopes-Lima et al., 2020, fig. 2-4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 1 120 3 2 --
        +-- Lamproscapha_ensiformis
  +-----+                          
  |     +-- Mycetopoda_siliquosa   
--+                                
  |  +----- Etheria_elliptica      
  +--+                             
     |  +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **
     +--+                          
        +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   

Guerra et al., 2019, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 7 0 2 39 5 1 11.0
  +----------------- Mutela_dubia **            
--+                                          
  |  +-------------- Chambardia_rubens **       
  +--+                                       
     |  +----------- Anodontites_trapesialis 
     +--+                                    
        |  +-------- Monocondylaea_parchappii
        +--+                                 
           |  +----- Lamproscapha_ensiformis 
           +--+                              
              |  +-- Anodontites_elongata    
              +--+                           
                 +-- Fossula_fossiculifera   

Guerra et al., 2019, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 7 0 2 39 5 1 11.0
  +----------------- Chambardia_rubens **       
--+                                          
  |  +-------------- Mutela_dubia **            
  +--+                                       
     |  +----------- Anodontites_trapesialis 
     +--+                                    
        |  +-------- Monocondylaea_parchappii
        +--+                                 
           |  +----- Lamproscapha_ensiformis 
           +--+                              
              |  +-- Anodontites_elongata    
              +--+                           
                 +-- Fossula_fossiculifera   

Graf & Ó Foighil, 2000, fig. 2A

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 29 0 0 --
-- Mutela_rostrata

Graf & Ó Foighil, 2000, fig. 2B

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 29 0 0 --
-- Mutela_rostrata

Hoeh et al., 1998, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 4 0 0 --
-- Mutela_rostrata

Hoeh et al., 1998, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 4 0 0 --
-- Mutela_rostrata

Graf et al., 2015, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 19 2 2 --
  +----- Chambardia_wahlbergi **
--+                          
  |  +-- Anodontites_elongata
  +--+                       
     +-- Etheria_elliptica   

Pfeiffer & Graf, 2015, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 39 2 2 --
  +----- Etheria_elliptica      
--+                             
  |  +-- Lamproscapha_ensiformis
  +--+                          
     +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **   

Bieler et al., 2014, fig. 26, 27, 29, 30

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 4 0 0 --
-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana

Bieler et al., 2014, fig. 28

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 4 0 0 --
-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana

González & Giribet, 2015, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 5 0 0 --
-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana

González & Giribet, 2015, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 5 0 0 --
-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana

González & Giribet, 2015, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 5 0 0 --
-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana

González & Giribet, 2015, fig. 6

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 5 0 0 --
-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana

Elderkin et al., 2016, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 2 1 1 --
-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana

Guerra et al., 2017, fig. 2a

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 24 1 1 --
  +-- Mutela_dubia **           
--+                          
  +-- Anodontites_trapesialis

Guerra et al., 2017, fig. 2b

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 24 1 1 --
  +-- Mutela_dubia **           
--+                          
  +-- Anodontites_trapesialis

Konopleva et al., 2017, fig. 6

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 30 2 2 --
  +----- Anodontites_elongata
--+                          
  |  +-- Etheria_elliptica   
  +--+                       
     +-- Chambardia_wahlbergi **

Huang et al., 2018, fig. 6

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 42 1 1 --
  +-- Anodontites_trapesialis
--+                          
  +-- Mutela_dubia **           

Huang et al., 2019, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 56 1 1 --
  +-- Anodontites_trapesialis
--+                          
  +-- Mutela_dubia **           

Wu et al., 2019, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 46 0 0 --
-- Mutela_dubia

Pfeiffer et al., 2019, fig. 4-5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 56 2 2 --
  +----- Anodontites_elongata   
--+                             
  |  +-- Etheria_elliptica      
  +--+                          
     +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **

Pfeiffer et al., 2019, fig. 6

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 56 2 2 --
  +----- Anodontites_elongata   
--+                             
  |  +-- Etheria_elliptica      
  +--+                          
     +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **

Lemer et al., 2019, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 5 1 1 --
  +-- Etheria_elliptica      
--+                          
  +-- Aspatharia_pfeifferiana **

Wu et al., 2020, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 49 1 1 --
  +-- Anodontites_trapesialis
--+                          
  +-- Mutela_dubia **           

Wu et al., 2022, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 73 1 1 --
  +-- Mutela_dubia **           
--+                          
  +-- Anodontites_trapesialis

Page updated: 08:55:45 Wed 18 Jan 2023

 
NSF icon MUSSEL icon
"Making the world a better place, one mollusk at a time."