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Page last updated
Fri 02 Dec 2022

The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves)

FM(U)otW(aolcb) is the web version of the MUSSEL Project Database. Follow the links to browse the data or use the custom Google search field. Either way, you win!

Cladomics pages are experimental — even more so than the rest of this site!

The purpose of the cladomics pages for each genus and family-group level taxon is to provide statistics and references indicating the extent to which published phylogenetic work supports the classification used here.

The Cladomics Summary provides an overview of the number of studies that have included terminal species representing this taxon as well as an indication of how frequently it has been recovered as monophyletic.

Following the summary, the available published clades representing the taxon are listed.

For more information, visit the Cladomics FARQ (frequently asked rhetorical questions) page. Abbreviations for the various statistics are explained on the FARQ!

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Bivalvia | Unionoida | Unionoidea | Unionidae | Ambleminae | Lampsilini

genus Toxolasma Rafinesque, 1831: cladomics
     7 valid species

Cladomics Summary

number of species = 7

analyzed in 53 cladograms in 38 publications
maximum number of terminal species in an analysis = 4, mean = 1.23

Basic Monophyly

number of cladograms that test basic monophyly (i.e., more than 1 included species) = 6
maximum number of included species = 4, mean = 3.0
proportion of cladograms that support basic monophyly = 1.0


Breton et al., 2011, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 4 35 9 7 0.0

*** Top Monophyly Cladogram ***

           +-------- Toxolasma_paulum[2] **        
  +--------+                                    
  |        |  +----- Toxolasma_lividum **          
  |        +--+                                 
  |           |  +-- Toxolasma_parvum **           
--+           +--+                              
  |              +-- Toxolasma_paulum[1] **        
  |                                             
  |  +-------------- Ellipsaria_lineolata       
  |  |                                          
  +--+  +----------- Truncilla_macrodon         
     |  |                                       
     |  |        +-- Lemiox_rimosus             
     +--+  +-----+                              
        |  |     +-- Potamilus_metnecktayi      
        |  |                                    
        +--+     +-- Cambarunio_iris            
           |  +--+                              
           |  |  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
           +--+                                 
              |  +-- Lampsilis_powellii         
              |  |                              
              +--+-- Lampsilis_ornata           
                 |                              
                 +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      

Campbell et al., 2005, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 115 47 22 --

*** Top Sister-Group Cladogram ***

                                +-- Toxolasma_parvum **           
                          +-----+                              
                          |     +-- Toxolasma_texasiense **       
  +-----------------------+                                    
  |                       |  +----- Obliquaria_reflexa         
  |                       +--+                                 
  |                          |  +-- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis    
  |                          +--+                              
  |                             +-- Glebula_rotundata          
  |                                                            
  |                             +-- Potamilus_fragilis         
  |                          +--+                              
  |                          |  +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
  |              +-----------+                                 
  |              |           |  +-- Potamilus_alatus           
  |              |           +--+                              
--+              |              +-- Potamilus_purpuratus       
  |              |                                             
  |  +-----------+              +-- Sagittunio_nasutus         
  |  |           |           +--+                              
  |  |           |           |  +-- Medionidus_conradicus      
  |  |           |  +--------+                                 
  |  |           |  |        |  +-- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
  |  |           |  |        +--+                              
  |  |           +--+           +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  |  |              |                                          
  |  |              |  +----------- Medionidus_acutissimus     
  |  |              +--+                                       
  |  |                 |  +-------- Lemiox_rimosus             
  |  |                 +--+                                    
  +--+                    |  +----- Dromus_dromas              
     |                    +--+                                 
     |                       |  +-- Cyprogenia_aberti          
     |                       +--+                              
     |                          +-- Cyprogenia_stegaria        
     |                                                         
     |                          +-- Ellipsaria_lineolata       
     |  +-----------------------+                              
     |  |                       +-- Truncilla_truncata         
     |  |                                                      
     |  |  +----------------------- Villosa_villosa            
     |  |  |                                                   
     |  |  |                    +-- Obovaria_olivaria          
     +--+  |     +--------------+                              
        |  |     |              +-- Venustaconcha_pleasii      
        |  |     |                                             
        |  |  +--+           +----- Obovaria_unicolor          
        |  |  |  |  +--------+                                 
        |  |  |  |  |        |  +-- Obovaria_arkansasensis     
        +--+  |  |  |        +--+                              
           |  |  +--+           +-- Obovaria_subrotunda        
           |  |     |                                          
           |  |     |  +----------- Epioblasma_brevidens       
           |  |     +--+                                       
           |  |        |  +-------- Epioblasma_triquetra       
           |  |        +--+                                    
           |  |           |  +----- Epioblasma_walkeri[2]      
           |  |           +--+                                 
           |  |              |  +-- Epioblasma_capsaeformis    
           +--+              +--+                              
              |                 +-- Epioblasma_walkeri[1]      
              |                                                
              |                 +-- Ligumia_recta              
              |        +--------+                              
              |        |        +-- Cambarunio_iris            
              |     +--+                                       
              |     |  |  +-------- Lampsilis_teres            
              |     |  +--+                                    
              |     |     |  +----- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
              |     |     +--+                                 
              |     |        |  +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      
              |     |        +--+                              
              |     |           +-- Leaunio_vanuxemensis       
              +-----+                                          
                    |           +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
                    |        +--+                              
                    |        |  +-- Lampsilis_ovata            
                    |  +-----+                                 
                    |  |     |  +-- Ortmanniana_pectorosa      
                    |  |     +--+                              
                    |  |        +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
                    |  |                                       
                    +--+     +----- Hamiota_australis[2]       
                       |  +--+                                 
                       |  |  |  +-- Hamiota_australis[1]       
                       |  |  +--+                              
                       |  |     +-- Hamiota_subangulata        
                       +--+                                    
                          |  +----- Hamiota_altilis[2]         
                          |  |                                 
                          |  |  +-- Hamiota_altilis[1]         
                          +--+--+                              
                             |  +-- Hamiota_perovalis[1]       
                             |                                 
                             |  +-- Hamiota_altilis[3]         
                             +--+                              
                                +-- Hamiota_perovalis[2]       

Chase et al., 2018, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
4 4 2 4 35 8 7 4.0
           +-------- Toxolasma_parvum **           
  +--------+                                    
  |        |  +----- Toxolasma_lividum **          
  |        +--+                                 
  |           |  +-- Toxolasma_paulum **           
  |           +--+                              
--+              +-- Toxolasma_texasiense **       
  |                                             
  |  +-------------- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  |  |                                          
  |  |        +----- Lemiox_rimosus             
  +--+  +-----+                                 
     |  |     |  +-- Lampsilis_powellii         
     |  |     +--+                              
     +--+        +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      
        |                                       
        |  +-------- Potamilus_metnecktayi      
        +--+                                    
           |  +----- Cambarunio_iris            
           +--+                                 
              |  +-- Ellipsaria_lineolata       
              +--+                              
                 +-- Truncilla_macrodon         

Zanatta & Murphy, 2006, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 3 1 3 54 46 22 3.0
                                +-------- Obliquaria_reflexa         
  +-----------------------------+                                    
  |                             |  +----- Toxolasma_texasiense **       
  |                             +--+                                 
  |                                |  +-- Toxolasma_parvum **           
  |                                +--+                              
  |                                   +-- Toxolasma_lividum **          
  |                                                                  
  |  +----------------------------------- Sagittunio_nasutus         
  |  |                                                               
--+  |                                +-- Medionidus_conradicus      
  |  |                          +-----+                              
  |  |                          |     +-- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
  |  |                 +--------+                                    
  |  |                 |        |  +----- Medionidus_acutissimus     
  |  |                 |        |  |                                 
  |  |                 |        +--+----- Lemiox_rimosus             
  |  |                 |           |                                 
  |  |  +--------------+           |  +-- Dromus_dromas              
  +--+  |              |           +--+                              
     |  |              |              +-- Cyprogenia_stegaria        
     |  |              |                                             
     |  |              |  +-------------- Potamilus_leptodon         
     |  |              |  |                                          
     |  |              +--+  +----------- Potamilus_fragilis         
     |  |                 |  |                                       
     |  |                 +--+        +-- Potamilus_alatus           
     |  |                    |  +-----+                              
     |  |                    |  |     +-- Potamilus_purpuratus       
     |  |                    +--+                                    
     |  |                       |  +----- Potamilus_inflatus         
     +--+                       +--+                                 
        |                          |  +-- Potamilus_ohiensis         
        |                          +--+                              
        |                             +-- Potamilus_amphichaenus     
        |                                                            
        |                          +----- Lampsilis_teres            
        |  +-----------------------+                                 
        |  |                       |  +-- Truncilla_truncata         
        |  |                       +--+                              
        |  |                          +-- Ellipsaria_lineolata       
        |  |                                                         
        |  |  +-------------------------- Leaunio_vanuxemensis       
        |  |  |                                                      
        +--+  |                       +-- Hamiota_australis          
           |  |                    +--+                              
           |  |                    |  +-- Hamiota_subangulata        
           |  |              +-----+                                 
           |  |              |     |  +-- Hamiota_altilis            
           |  |              |     +--+                              
           |  |              |        +-- Hamiota_perovalis          
           +--+  +-----------+                                       
              |  |           |        +-- Lampsilis_fasciola         
              |  |           |  +-----+                              
              |  |           |  |     +-- Ortmanniana_pectorosa      
              |  |           +--+                                    
              |  |              |  +----- Lampsilis_ornata           
              |  |              +--+                                 
              |  |                 |  +-- Lampsilis_ovata            
              |  |                 +--+                              
              +--+                    +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
                 |                                                   
                 |              +-------- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      
                 |  +-----------+                                    
                 |  |           |  +----- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
                 |  |           +--+                                 
                 |  |              |  +-- Cambarunio_iris            
                 |  |              +--+                              
                 |  |                 +-- Ligumia_recta              
                 +--+                                                
                    |                 +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
                    |  +--------------+                              
                    |  |              +-- Venustaconcha_pleasii      
                    |  |                                             
                    |  |        +-------- Obovaria_olivaria          
                    +--+  +-----+                                    
                       |  |     |  +----- Obovaria_unicolor          
                       |  |     +--+                                 
                       |  |        |  +-- Obovaria_subrotunda        
                       +--+        +--+                              
                          |           +-- Obovaria_arkansasensis     
                          |                                          
                          |  +----------- Epioblasma_brevidens       
                          +--+                                       
                             |  +-------- Epioblasma_triquetra       
                             +--+                                    
                                |  +----- Epioblasma_rangiana        
                                +--+                                 
                                   |  +-- Epioblasma_walkeri         
                                   +--+                              
                                      +-- Epioblasma_capsaeformis    

Zanatta & Murphy, 2006, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
3 3 0 3 55 46 22 3.0
                                         +----- Paetulunio_fabalis         
                                         |                                 
  +--------------------------------------+  +-- Toxolasma_parvum **           
  |                                      |  |                              
  |                                      +--+-- Toxolasma_lividum **          
  |                                         |                              
  |                                         +-- Toxolasma_texasiense **       
  |                                                                        
  |                                      +----- Obliquaria_reflexa         
  |  +-----------------------------------+                                 
--+  |                                   |  +-- Glebula_rotundata          
  |  |                                   +--+                              
  |  |                                      +-- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis    
  |  |                                                                     
  |  |                                   +----- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
  |  |                                +--+                                 
  |  |                                |  |  +-- Dromus_dromas              
  |  |                                |  +--+                              
  +--+  +-----------------------------+     +-- Cyprogenia_stegaria        
     |  |                             |                                    
     |  |                             |  +----- Medionidus_conradicus      
     |  |                             +--+                                 
     |  |                                |  +-- Medionidus_acutissimus     
     |  |                                +--+                              
     |  |                                   +-- Lemiox_rimosus             
     |  |                                                                  
     |  |  +----------------------------------- Sagittunio_nasutus         
     |  |  |                                                               
     +--+  |                    +-------------- Potamilus_leptodon         
        |  |                    |                                          
        |  +--------------------+  +----------- Potamilus_fragilis         
        |  |                    |  |                                       
        |  |                    +--+        +-- Potamilus_alatus           
        |  |                       |  +-----+                              
        |  |                       |  |     +-- Potamilus_purpuratus       
        |  |                       +--+                                    
        |  |                          |  +----- Potamilus_inflatus         
        |  |                          +--+                                 
        +--+                             |  +-- Potamilus_ohiensis         
           |                             +--+                              
           |                                +-- Potamilus_amphichaenus     
           |                                                               
           |                                +-- Truncilla_truncata         
           |  +-----------------------------+                              
           |  |                             +-- Ellipsaria_lineolata       
           |  |                                                            
           |  |                             +-- Ortmanniana_pectorosa      
           |  |                       +-----+                              
           |  |                       |     +-- Lampsilis_fasciola         
           |  |  +--------------------+                                    
           +--+  |                    |  +----- Lampsilis_ornata           
              |  |                    +--+                                 
              |  |                       |  +-- Lampsilis_ovata            
              |  |                       +--+                              
              |  |                          +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
              |  |                                                         
              |  |                          +-- Ligumia_recta              
              +--+                 +--------+                              
                 |                 |        +-- Cambarunio_iris            
                 |  +--------------+                                       
                 |  |              |  +-------- Lampsilis_teres            
                 |  |              |  |                                    
                 |  |              +--+     +-- Hamiota_australis          
                 |  |                 |  +--+                              
                 |  |                 |  |  +-- Hamiota_subangulata        
                 +--+                 +--+                                 
                    |                    |  +-- Hamiota_altilis            
                    |                    +--+                              
                    |                       +-- Hamiota_perovalis          
                    |                                                      
                    |  +----------------------- Leaunio_vanuxemensis       
                    |  |                                                   
                    +--+  +-------------------- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
                       |  |                                                
                       |  |  +----------------- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      
                       +--+  |                                             
                          |  |  +-------------- Obovaria_olivaria          
                          |  |  |                                          
                          +--+  |           +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
                             |  +-----------+                              
                             |  |           +-- Venustaconcha_pleasii      
                             |  |                                          
                             +--+        +----- Obovaria_unicolor          
                                +--------+                                 
                                |        |  +-- Obovaria_subrotunda        
                                |        +--+                              
                                |           +-- Obovaria_arkansasensis     
                                |                                          
                                |  +----------- Epioblasma_brevidens       
                                +--+                                       
                                   |  +-------- Epioblasma_triquetra       
                                   +--+                                    
                                      |  +----- Epioblasma_rangiana        
                                      +--+                                 
                                         |  +-- Epioblasma_walkeri         
                                         +--+                              
                                            +-- Epioblasma_capsaeformis    

Campbell et al., 2005, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
2 2 0 2 113 47 22 --
  +-- Toxolasma_parvum **    
--+                       
  +-- Toxolasma_texasiense **

Bogan & Hoeh, 2000, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 33 5 5 --
No taxon cladogram to show.

Hoeh et al., 2001, fig. 14.2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 30 5 5 --
  +----- Potamilus_alatus 
--+                       
  |  +-- Ligumia_recta    
  +--+                    
     +-- Toxolasma_lividum **

Hoeh et al., 2001, fig. 14.4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 30 5 5 --
           +-- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis
  +--------+                          
  |        +-- Glebula_rotundata      
--+                                   
  |  +-------- Toxolasma_lividum **      
  +--+                                
     |  +----- Potamilus_alatus       
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Ligumia_recta          
        +--+                          
           +-- Ortmanniana_ligamentina

Hoeh et al., 2002, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 30 5 5 --
No taxon cladogram to show.

Roe & Hoeh, 2003, fig. 4.2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 30 5 5 --
  +----- Potamilus_alatus 
--+                       
  |  +-- Ligumia_recta    
  +--+                    
     +-- Toxolasma_lividum **

Roe & Hoeh, 2003, fig. 4.3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 30 5 5 --
           +-- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis
  +--------+                          
  |        +-- Glebula_rotundata      
--+                                   
  |  +-------- Toxolasma_lividum **      
  +--+                                
     |  +----- Ortmanniana_ligamentina
     +--+                             
        |  +-- Ligumia_recta          
        +--+                          
           +-- Potamilus_alatus       

Chapman et al., 2008, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 20 12 10 --
  +-------------------------- Toxolasma_lividum **          
  |                                                      
--+  +----------------------- Obliquaria_reflexa         
  |  |                                                   
  |  |                    +-- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis    
  +--+  +-----------------+                              
     |  |                 +-- Glebula_rotundata          
     |  |                                                
     +--+                 +-- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
        |  +--------------+                              
        |  |              +-- Lemiox_rimosus             
        |  |                                             
        +--+              +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
           |  +-----------+                              
           |  |           +-- Obovaria_olivaria          
           +--+                                          
              |  +----------- Hamiota_subangulata        
              +--+                                       
                 |  +-------- Lampsilis_ovata            
                 +--+                                    
                    |  +----- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
                    +--+                                 
                       |  +-- Lampsilis_straminea        
                       +--+                              
                          +-- Lampsilis_hydiana          

Krebs et al., 2003, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 33 10 7 --
No taxon cladogram to show.

Boyer et al., 2011, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 34 15 9 --
  +-------------- Toxolasma_parvum **       
  |                                      
  |  +----------- Obliquaria_reflexa     
  |  |                                   
--+  |  +-------- Obovaria_olivaria      
  |  |  |                                
  |  |  +-------- Lampsilis_cardium      
  |  |  |                                
  +--+  |     +-- Epioblasma_triquetra   
     |  +-----+                          
     |  |     +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea  
     |  |                                
     |  |     +-- Ortmanniana_ligamentina
     |  +-----+                          
     |  |     +-- Lampsilis_higginsii    
     +--+                                
        |     +-- Ligumia_recta          
        +-----+                          
        |     +-- Lampsilis_teres        
        |                                
        |  +----- Potamilus_fragilis     
        +--+                             
        |  |  +-- Potamilus_ohiensis     
        |  +--+                          
        |     +-- Potamilus_alatus       
        |                                
        |  +----- Ellipsaria_lineolata   
        +--+                             
           |  +-- Truncilla_truncata     
           +--+                          
              +-- Truncilla_donaciformis 

Boyer et al., 2011, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 37 15 9 --
No taxon cladogram to show.

Chapman et al., 2008, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 20 12 10 --
  +-------------------------- Toxolasma_lividum **          
  |                                                      
--+  +----------------------- Obliquaria_reflexa         
  |  |                                                   
  |  |                    +-- Cyrtonaias_tampicoensis    
  +--+  +-----------------+                              
     |  |                 +-- Glebula_rotundata          
     |  |                                                
     +--+                 +-- Ptychobranchus_fasciolaris 
        |  +--------------+                              
        |  |              +-- Lemiox_rimosus             
        |  |                                             
        +--+              +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
           |  +-----------+                              
           |  |           +-- Obovaria_olivaria          
           +--+                                          
              |  +----------- Hamiota_subangulata        
              +--+                                       
                 |  +-------- Lampsilis_ovata            
                 +--+                                    
                    |  +----- Ortmanniana_ligamentina    
                    +--+                                 
                       |  +-- Lampsilis_straminea        
                       +--+                              
                          +-- Lampsilis_hydiana          

Campbell & Lydeard, 2012, fig. 1-2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 73 14 10 --
  +----------------- Potamilus_alatus           
  |                                             
  +----------------- Potamilus_capax            
  |                                             
  +----------------- Glebula_rotundata          
  |                                             
  |              +-- Toxolasma_lividum **          
  +--------------+                              
--+              +-- Paetulunio_fabalis         
  |                                             
  |              +-- Dromus_dromas              
  +--------------+                              
  |              +-- Lemiox_rimosus             
  |                                             
  |              +-- Lampsilis_ovata            
  |  +-----------+                              
  |  |           +-- Obliquaria_reflexa         
  +--+                                          
     |  +----------- Lampsilis_virescens        
     |  |                                       
     +--+        +-- Epioblasma_rangiana        
        |  +-----+                              
        |  |     +-- Obovaria_arkansasensis     
        +--+                                    
           |  +----- Obovaria_olivaria          
           +--+                                 
              |  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
              +--+                              
                 +-- Venustaconcha_pleasii      

Campbell & Lydeard, 2012, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 73 14 10 --
No taxon cladogram to show.

Huang et al., 2013, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 15 2 2 --
  +----- Toxolasma_parvum **           
--+                                 
  |  +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
  +--+                              
     +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis

Zhou et al., 2016, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 19 2 2 --
  +----- Toxolasma_parvum **           
--+                                 
  |  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  +--+                              
     +-- Lampsilis_ornata           

Guerra et al., 2017, fig. 2a

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 24 2 2 --
  +----- Toxolasma_parvum **           
--+                                 
  |  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  +--+                              
     +-- Lampsilis_ornata           

Guerra et al., 2017, fig. 2b

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 24 2 2 --
  +----- Toxolasma_parvum **           
--+                                 
  |  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  +--+                              
     +-- Lampsilis_ornata           

Fonseca et al., 2016, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 31 2 2 --
  +----- Toxolasma_parvum **           
--+                                 
  |  +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
  +--+                              
     +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis

Amaro et al., 2017, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 15 2 2 --
  +----- Toxolasma_parvum **           
--+                                 
  |  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  +--+                              
     +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      

Amaro et al., 2017, fig. 3A

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 11 1 1 --
  +-- Toxolasma_parvum **           
--+                              
  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis

Amaro et al., 2017, fig. 3B

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 11 1 1 --
  +-- Toxolasma_parvum **           
--+                              
  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis

Lopes-Lima et al., 2017, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 32 2 2 --
  +----- Toxolasma_parvum **           
--+                                 
  |  +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
  +--+                              
     +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis

Wen et al., 2017, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 15 4 3 --
  +-------- Toxolasma_parvum **           
  |                                    
--+     +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
  |  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  +--+                                 
     |  +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
     +--+                              
        +-- Potamilus_alatus           

Huang et al., 2018, fig. 6

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 42 4 3 --
  +-------- Toxolasma_parvum **           
  |                                    
--+     +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
  |  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  +--+                                 
     |  +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
     +--+                              
        +-- Potamilus_alatus           

Huang et al., 2019, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 199 13 11 --
No taxon cladogram to show.

Huang et al., 2019, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 56 6 4 --
  +-------------- Toxolasma_parvum **           
  |                                          
--+           +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
  |  +--------+                              
  |  |        +-- Potamilus_alatus           
  +--+                                       
     |  +-------- Leaunio_lienosus           
     +--+                                    
        |  +----- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
        +--+                                 
           |  +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
           +--+                              
              +-- Lampsilis_ornata           

Huang et al., 2019, fig. S3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 197 13 11 --
No taxon cladogram to show.

Huang et al., 2019, fig. S4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 200 13 11 --
No taxon cladogram to show.

Wang et al., 2018, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 31 4 3 --
  +-------- Toxolasma_parvum **           
  |                                    
--+     +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  |  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
  +--+                                 
     |  +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
     +--+                              
        +-- Potamilus_alatus           

Aunins et al., 2018, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 40 2 2 --
  +----- Toxolasma_parvum **           
--+                                 
  |  +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
  +--+                              
     +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis

Wu et al., 2019, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 46 4 3 --
  +-------- Toxolasma_parvum **           
  |                                    
--+     +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
  |  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  +--+                                 
     |  +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
     +--+                              
        +-- Potamilus_alatus           

Wang et al., 2018, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 31 4 3 --
  +-------- Toxolasma_parvum **           
  |                                    
--+     +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
  |  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Potamilus_alatus           
  +--+                                 
     |  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
     +--+                              
        +-- Lampsilis_ornata           

Burlakova et al., 2019, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 32 25 17 --
  +----------------- Toxolasma_lividum **     
  |                                        
  |              +-- Potamilus_fragilis    
  |  +-----------+                         
  |  |           +-- Potamilus_metnecktayi 
  |  |                                     
  |  |        +----- Medionidus_acutissimus
  |  +--------+                            
--+  |        |  +-- Lemiox_rimosus        
  |  |        +--+                         
  |  |           +-- Dromus_dromas         
  |  |                                     
  |  |        +----- Ellipsaria_lineolata  
  |  |        |                            
  |  +--------+  +-- Truncilla_cognata     
  |  |        |  |                         
  +--+        |  +-- Truncilla_donaciformis
     |        +--+                         
     |           +-- Truncilla_macrodon    
     |           |                         
     |           +-- Truncilla_truncata    
     |                                     
     |  +----------- Cambarunio_simus      
     |  |                                  
     |  +----------- Leaunio_lienosus      
     |  |                                  
     |  +----------- Villosa_villosa       
     |  |                                  
     |  |        +-- Sagittunio_nasutus    
     |  +--------+                         
     +--+        +-- Lampsilis_ovata       
        |                                  
        |     +----- Venustaconcha_pleasii 
        +-----+                            
        |     |  +-- Epioblasma_rangiana   
        |     +--+                         
        |        +-- Obovaria_unicolor     
        |                                  
        |  +-------- Lampsilis_teres       
        +--+                               
           |  +----- Lampsilis_siliquoidea 
           +--+                            
              |  +-- Lampsilis_hydiana     
              +--+                         
                 +-- Lampsilis_straminea   

Cha et al., 2018, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 38 3 2 --
  +-------- Toxolasma_parvum **  
--+                           
  |  +----- Lampsilis_ornata  
  +--+                        
     |  +-- Potamilus_alatus  
     +--+                     
        +-- Potamilus_leptodon

Froufe et al., 2019, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 44 4 3 --
  +-------- Toxolasma_parvum **           
  |                                    
--+     +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
  |  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  +--+                                 
     |  +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
     +--+                              
        +-- Potamilus_alatus           

Froufe et al., 2019, fig. 6

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 43 4 3 --
  +-------- Toxolasma_parvum **           
  |                                    
--+     +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
  |  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Potamilus_alatus           
  +--+                                 
     |  +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
     +--+                              
        +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis

Inoue et al., 2020, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 43 28 6 --
  +----------------------------------- Toxolasma_lividum **      
  |                                                           
  |                          +-------- Potamilus_fragilis     
  |                          |                                
  |  +-----------------------+     +-- Potamilus_ohiensis     
--+  |                       |  +--+                          
  |  |                       |  |  +-- Potamilus_amphichaenus 
  |  |                       +--+                             
  |  |                          |  +-- Potamilus_metnecktayi  
  |  |                          +--+                          
  |  |                             +-- Potamilus_purpuratus   
  +--+                                                        
     |                       +-------- Ellipsaria_lineolata   
     |  +--------------------+                                
     |  |                    |  +----- Truncilla_macrodon     
     |  |                    +--+                             
     |  |                       |  +-- Truncilla_donaciformis 
     |  |                       +--+                          
     |  |                          +-- Truncilla_cognata      
     +--+                                                     
        |  +-------------------------- Leaunio_lienosus       
        |  |                                                  
        |  |     +-------------------- Lampsilis_bracteata    
        |  |     |                                            
        |  |  +--+  +----------------- Lampsilis_fasciola     
        |  |  |  |  |                                         
        +--+  |  +--+  +-------------- Lampsilis_ornata       
           |  |     |  |                                      
           |  |     +--+           +-- Lampsilis_ovata        
           |  |        |  +--------+                          
           |  |        |  |        +-- Lampsilis_cariosa      
           |  |        +--+                                   
           |  |           |  +-------- Lampsilis_cardium[3]   
           +--+           +--+                                
              |              |  +----- Lampsilis_cardium[2]   
              |              +--+                             
              |                 |  +-- Lampsilis_satura       
              |                 +--+                          
              |                    +-- Lampsilis_cardium[1]   
              |                                               
              |                    +-- Lampsilis_higginsii    
              |     +--------------+                          
              |     |              +-- Ortmanniana_ligamentina
              +-----+                                         
                    |  +-------------- Lampsilis_teres        
                    |  |                                      
                    +--+           +-- Lampsilis_radiata      
                       |  +--------+                          
                       |  |        +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea  
                       +--+                                   
                          |  +-------- Lampsilis_bergmanni    
                          +--+                                
                             |  +----- Lampsilis_hydiana      
                             +--+                             
                                |  +-- Lampsilis_virescens    
                                +--+                          
                                   +-- Lampsilis_straminea    

Inoue et al., 2020, fig. 4

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 42 27 6 --
  +----------------------------------- Toxolasma_lividum **      
  |                                                           
  |  +-------------------------------- Ellipsaria_lineolata   
--+  |                                                        
  |  |                          +----- Truncilla_cognata      
  |  |  +-----------------------+                             
  |  |  |                       |  +-- Truncilla_macrodon     
  +--+  |                       +--+                          
     |  |                          +-- Truncilla_donaciformis 
     |  |                                                     
     |  |                    +-------- Potamilus_fragilis     
     |  |                    |                                
     +--+  +-----------------+     +-- Potamilus_ohiensis     
        |  |                 |  +--+                          
        |  |                 |  |  +-- Potamilus_amphichaenus 
        |  |                 +--+                             
        |  |                    |  +-- Potamilus_metnecktayi  
        |  |                    +--+                          
        |  |                       +-- Potamilus_purpuratus   
        +--+                                                  
           |  +----------------------- Leaunio_lienosus       
           |  |                                               
           |  |     +----------------- Lampsilis_bracteata    
           |  |     |                                         
           |  |  +--+              +-- Lampsilis_ornata       
           |  |  |  |  +-----------+                          
           +--+  |  |  |           +-- Lampsilis_fasciola     
              |  |  +--+                                      
              |  |     |  +----------- Lampsilis_ovata        
              |  |     +--+                                   
              |  |        |  +-------- Lampsilis_cardium[3]   
              |  |        +--+                                
              +--+           |  +----- Lampsilis_cardium[2]   
                 |           +--+                             
                 |              |  +-- Lampsilis_satura       
                 |              +--+                          
                 |                 +-- Lampsilis_cardium[1]   
                 |                                            
                 |     +-------------- Lampsilis_teres        
                 |     |                                      
                 |     |           +-- Lampsilis_higginsii    
                 +-----+  +--------+                          
                       |  |        +-- Ortmanniana_ligamentina
                       |  |                                   
                       +--+        +-- Lampsilis_radiata      
                          |  +-----+                          
                          |  |     +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea  
                          |  |                                
                          +--+     +-- Lampsilis_hydiana      
                             |  +--+                          
                             |  |  +-- Lampsilis_bergmanni    
                             +--+                             
                                |  +-- Lampsilis_virescens    
                                +--+                          
                                   +-- Lampsilis_straminea    

Smith et al., 2019, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 41 36 19 --
No taxon cladogram to show.

Wu et al., 2020, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 49 4 3 --
  +-------- Toxolasma_parvum **           
  |                                    
--+     +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  |  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
  +--+                                 
     |  +-- Potamilus_alatus           
     +--+                              
        +-- Potamilus_leptodon         

Wu et al., 2020, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 29 1 1 --
  +-- Toxolasma_parvum **           
--+                              
  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis

Guerra et al., 2019, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 40 2 2 --
  +----- Toxolasma_parvum **           
--+                                 
  |  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  +--+                              
     +-- Potamilus_alatus           

Guerra et al., 2019, fig. 2

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 40 2 2 --
  +----- Toxolasma_parvum **           
--+                                 
  |  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
  +--+                              
     +-- Potamilus_alatus           

Chen et al., 2020, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 33 5 2 --
  +----------- Toxolasma_parvum **     
--+                                 
  |  +-------- Lampsilis_ornata     
  +--+                              
     |  +----- Potamilus_leptodon   
     +--+                           
        |  +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea
        +--+                        
           +-- Lampsilis_powellii   

Teiga-Teixeira et al., 2020, fig. 1

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 18 7 3 --
  +-------------- Toxolasma_parvum **           
  |                                          
  |           +-- Potamilus_alatus           
--+  +--------+                              
  |  |        +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
  |  |                                       
  +--+        +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
     |  +-----+                              
     |  |     +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
     +--+                                    
        |  +----- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
        +--+                                 
           |  +-- Lampsilis_powellii         
           +--+                              
              +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      

Zieritz et al., 2021, fig. 3-F, 5

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 48 4 3 --
  +-------- Toxolasma_parvum **           
  |                                    
--+     +-- Potamilus_alatus           
  |  +--+                              
  |  |  +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
  +--+                                 
     |  +-- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
     +--+                              
        +-- Lampsilis_ornata           

Wu et al., 2022, fig. 3

iT tT bi riS oT roT roS iD
1 1 0 1 73 8 4 --
  +----------------- Toxolasma_parvum **           
  |                                             
--+              +-- Potamilus_alatus           
  |  +-----------+                              
  |  |           +-- Potamilus_leptodon         
  +--+                                          
     |  +----------- Leaunio_lienosus           
     |  |                                       
     +--+        +-- Lampsilis_cardium          
        |  +-----+                              
        |  |     +-- Lampsilis_ornata           
        +--+                                    
           |  +----- Venustaconcha_ellipsiformis
           +--+                                 
              |  +-- Lampsilis_siliquoidea      
              +--+                              
                 +-- Lampsilis_powellii         

Page updated: 11:38:53 Fri 02 Dec 2022

 
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