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Page last updated
Fri 02 Oct 2020

The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves)

FM(U)otW(aolcb) is the web version of the MUSSEL Project Database. Follow the links to browse the data or use the custom Google search field. Either way, you win!

The nominal species (available and otherwise) in this synonymy are listed by usage rather than strictly by publication date. The primary sorting order is by the most recent year (since 1969) that the species name was treated as valid, and then nominal species are sorted secondarily by publication year.

Search the database pages:

Bivalvia | Unionoida | Unionoidea | Unionidae | Ambleminae | Pleurobemini | Pleurobema

species Pleurobema sintoxia (Rafinesque, 1820): synonymy
     8 specimens available.

Obliquaria (Sintoxia) sintoxia Rafinesque, 1820
Rafinesque, 1819, Jour. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 427 [as ‘U. (Obovaria) syntoxis’]. [nomen nudum]
Rafinesque, 1820, Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. 5 (13): 310.
Rafinesque, 1864, [in] Binney & Tryon, reprint: 29, 54.
(correct name for Unio (Obovaria) syntoxis Rafinesque, 1819)
Type(s): LECTOTYPE ANSP_20208, Ohio River.

Obliquaria (Sintoxia) sintoxiaRafinesque (1820)
Unio sintoxiaFerussac (1835), Conrad (1853)
Fusconaia subrotundaOrtmann & Walker (1922)
Quadrula (Fusconia) subrotundaFrierson (1927)
Pleurobema sintoxiaMorrison (1969), Oesch (1984), Parmalee & Bogan (1998), Turgeon et al. (1998), Lydeard et al. (1999), Kandl et al. (2001), Cicerello & Schuster (2003), Sietman (2003), Campbell et al. (2005), Graf & Cummings (2007), Burdick & White (2007), Chapman et al. (2008), Williams et al. (2008), Chapman et al. (2008), Campbell et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009), Jadhav & Jamkhedkar (2009), Cummings & Graf (2010), Bogan (2010), Boyer et al. (2011), Whelan et al. (2011), Haag (2012), McMurray et al. (2012), IUCN (2012), ITIS (2012), Zieritz et al. (2013), Pfeiffer et al. (2016), Lopes-Lima et al. (2017), Bolotov et al. (2017), Bolotov et al. (2017), Williams et al. (2017), Perkins et al. (2017), Inoue et al. (2018), Pieri et al. (2018), Bolotov et al. (2018), Wu et al. (2018), Huang et al. (2019), Inoue et al. (2020), Bolotov et al. (2020)
Obliquaria sintoxiaBurch (1975)
Pleurobema cordatumR.I. Johnson (1980), Strayer & Jirka (1997)
Pleurobema (Sintoxia) sintoxiaCampbell & Lydeard (2012), Campbell & Lydeard (2012), Burlakova et al. (2012)

Unio coccineus Conrad, 1836
‘Hildreth’ Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(3): 29, pl. 13, fig. 1.
‘Hildreth’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 247.
Type(s): FIGURED SYNTYPE USNM_85848, Columbus, Ohio.

Unio coccineusConrad (1836), Hanley (1843), Küster (1852), Conrad (1853)
Margarita (Unio) coccineusLea (1836)
Margaron (Unio) coccineusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccineaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Pleurobema obliqua var. coccineaOrtmann (1910)
Pleurobema coccineumOrtmann (1912), Utterback (1915), F.C. Baker (1928), Turgeon et al. (1988), Cummings & Mayer (1992), Williams et al. (1993), Graf & Ó Foighil (2000), Graf (2002), ITIS (2012)
Pleurobema obliquum coccineumUtterback (1915)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccineaFrierson (1927)
Pleurobema cordatum coccineumMurray & Leonard (1962), Gordon et al. (1979)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea coccineaHaas (1969)
Pleurobema cordatumMathiak (1979), R.I. Johnson (1980), Strayer & Jirka (1997)
Pleurobema cordatum f. coccineumMackie et al. (1980)
Pleurobema sintoxiaOesch (1984), Turgeon et al. (1998), Parmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009), IUCN (2012)

Unio coccineus Lea, 1838
“Dr. Hildreth’s Letter” Lea, 1836, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 34. [nomen nudum]
Lea, 1838, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 6 [O. 2]: 12, pl. 5, fig. 12.
(homonym of Unio coccineus Conrad, 1836)
Type(s): FIGURED SYNTYPE USNM_85848, Columbus, Ohio.

Unio coccineusLea (1838), Hanley (1843), Conrad (1853), Reeve (1865), Sowerby (1868), de Gregorio (1914)
Margarita (Unio) coccineusLea (1836)
Margaron (Unio) coccineusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Obovaria) coccineusMörch (1853), Adams & Adams (1857)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccineaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (s.s.) coccineusCall (1900)
Quadrula (Obliquata) catillaFrierson (1927)
Pleurobema coccineumF.C. Baker (1928), Hoeh et al. (2009)
Pleurobema cordatumR.I. Johnson (1980)
Pleurobema coccineusGraf & Cummings (2006)

Unio catillus Conrad, 1836
Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(3): 30, pl. 13, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 246.

Unio catillusConrad (1836), Küster (1852), Conrad (1853)
Margarita (Unio) coccineusLea (1836)
Unio coccineusHanley (1843), Reeve (1865), Sowerby (1868)
Margaron (Unio) coccineusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Obovaria) coccineusMörch (1853)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccineaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Pleurobema obliquum catillusUtterback (1915)
Pleurobema catillusUtterback (1915), Ortmann & Walker (1922)
Pleurobema cordatum catillusOrtmann (1924), Ortmann (1925), Murray & Leonard (1962), Gordon et al. (1979)
Quadrula (Obliquata) catillaFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Pleurobema coccineum catillusF.C. Baker (1928)
Pleurobema cordatumBurch (1975), R.I. Johnson (1980)
Pleurobema sintoxiaOesch (1984), Parmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)

Obliquaria (Scalenaria) triangularis Rafinesque, 1820
Rafinesque, 1820, Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. 5 (13): 309.
Rafinesque, 1864, [in] Binney & Tryon, reprint: 53.

Obliquaria (Scalenaria) triangularisRafinesque (1820)
Unio triangularisFerussac (1835)
Fusconaia subrotundaOrtmann & Walker (1922)
Quadrula (Obliquata) catillaFrierson (1927)
Obliquaria triangularisBurch (1975)

Unio (Obovaria) syntoxis Rafinesque, 1819
Rafinesque, 1819, Jour. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 427. [nomen nudum]
Rafinesque, 1864, [in] Binney & Tryon, reprint: 29.
(incorrect original spelling of Obliquaria (Sintoxia) sintoxia Rafinesque, 1820)

Unio (Obovaria) syntoxisRafinesque (1819)
Fusconaia subrotundaHaas (1969)

Unio cuneus Conrad, 1838
Conrad, 1838, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(11): back cover.
Conrad, 1840, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(12): 105, pl. 58, fig. 1.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE (MONOTYPY) ANSP_41645, Arkansas River.

Unio cuneusConrad (1838), Conrad (1840), Call (1895)
Margaron (Unio) coccineusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) cuneusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea-cuneaFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea cuneaHaas (1969)
Pleurobema cordatumR.I. Johnson (1980)
Pleurobema pyramidatumVidrine (1993)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)

Pleurobema missouriensis Marsh, 1901
Marsh, 1901, Nautilus 15(7): 74.
Walker, 1915, Nautilus 28(12): 140, pl. 5, figs. 1-2.
Type(s): FIGURED SYNTYPE UMMZ_113527, Black River, Poplar Bluff, Butler Co., Missouri.

Pleurobema missouriensisMarsh (1901)
Pleurobema (s.s.) missourienseSimpson (1914)
Pleurobema missourenseUtterback (1915)
Quadrula (Obliquata) missouriensisFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Fusconaia subrotundaR.I. Johnson (1980)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)

Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccinea var. magnalacustris Simpson, 1914
Simpson, 1914, Descr. Cat. Naiades: 884.
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Unio coccineus Conrad, 1836; new name for Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccinea var. paupercula Simpson, 1900)
Type(s): LECTOTYPE USNM_133834, Niagara Riv., 3 mi above Falls.

Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccinea var. magnalacustrisSimpson (1914)
Pleurobema coccineum pauperculaOrtmann & Walker (1922)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea-magnalacustrisFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea magnalacustrisHaas (1969)
Pleurobema cordatumR.I. Johnson (1980)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)

Obliquaria (Scalenaria) triangularis var. nigrescens Rafinesque, 1820
Rafinesque, 1820, Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. 5 (13): 309.
Rafinesque, 1864, [in] Binney & Tryon, reprint: 53.
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Obliquaria (Scalenaria) triangularis Rafinesque, 1820)

Obliquaria (Scalenaria) triangularis var. nigrescensRafinesque (1820)

Unio solidus Lea, 1838
Lea, 1836, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 20. [nomen nudum]
Lea, 1838, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 6 [O. 2]: 13, pl. 5, fig. 13.

Unio solidusLea (1838), Hanley (1843), Küster (1862), Reeve (1865)
Margarita (Unio) solidusLea (1836)
Margaron (Unio) solidusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio obovalisConrad (1853)
Unio (Lampsilis) solidusAdams & Adams (1857)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) solidaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (s.s.) solidusCall (1900)
Pleurobema obliquum catillusUtterback (1915)
Pleurobema catillusUtterback (1915), Ortmann & Walker (1922)
Pleurobema cordatum catillusOrtmann (1925), Murray & Leonard (1962)
Quadrula (Obliquata) catillaFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Pleurobema coccineum solidaF.C. Baker (1928)
Pleurobema sintoxiaMorrison (1969), Oesch (1984), Parmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)
Pleurobema cordatumBurch (1975), R.I. Johnson (1980), Strayer & Jirka (1997)

Unio cardiacea Deshayes, 1839
‘Guérin’ Deshayes, 1839, Traité Élém. Conchyl.: 19, pl. 31, figs. 1-2.
(misidentified reference to Unio cardiacea Guérin-Méneville, 1823)

Unio cardiaceaDeshayes (1839)
Margaron (Unio) pyramidatusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) solidaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula (Obliquata) catillaHaas (1969)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Watters et al. (2009)

Unio gouldianus Jay, 1839
Ward in Jay, 1839, Cat. Rec. Shells: 24. [nomen nudum]

Unio gouldianusJay (1839)
Margaron (Unio) ebenusLea (1852)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccineaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (s.s.) coccineusCall (1900)
Quadrula (Fusconia) antrosaFrierson (1927)
Fusconaia antrosaHaas (1969)
Pleurobema cordatumR.I. Johnson (1980)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)

Unio fulgidus Lea, 1845
Lea, 1845, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 4: 164.
Lea, 1848, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 10 [O. 4]: 73 [47], pl. 4, fig. 10.
Type(s): FIGURED SYNTYPE USNM_84649, Alexandria, La.

Unio fulgidusLea (1845), Conrad (1853)
Margaron (Unio) fulgidusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Lampsilis) fulgidusAdams & Adams (1857)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) solidaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Pleurobema catillusUtterback (1915)
Quadrula (Obliquata) catillaFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Pleurobema cordatumR.I. Johnson (1980)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)

Unio obovalis Conrad, 1853
‘Rafinesque’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 253.
(misidentified reference to Obovaria obovalis Rafinesque, 1820)

Unio obovalisConrad (1853)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) solidaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Watters et al. (2009)

Unio mytiloides Lapham, 1860
Lapham, 1860, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 12: 156.
(misidentified reference to Pleurobema mytiloides Rafinesque, 1820)

Unio mytiloidesLapham (1860)
Pleurobema coccineum catillusF.C. Baker (1928)

Unio obliquus Lapham, 1860
‘Lamarck’ of Authors.
Lapham, 1860, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 12: 156.
Baker, 1905, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 15: 256.
Ortmann, 1919, Mem. Carnegie Mus. 8(1): 73. [in part]
(misidentified reference to Unio obliqua Lamarck, 1819)

Unio obliquusLapham (1860)
Pleurobema coccineum solidaF.C. Baker (1928)

Unio pyramidatus Call, 1885
Call, 1885, unknown publication: 46.
(misidentified reference to Unio pyramidatus Lea, 1831)

Unio pyramidatusCall (1885)
Pleurobema coccineum catillusF.C. Baker (1928)

Unio catilus B.H. Wright, 1888
B.H. Wright, 1888, Check List: unnumbered p. 2.
Ortmann, 1924, Amer. Midl. Nat. 9(1): 38.
(error for Unio catillus Conrad, 1836)

Unio catilusB.H. Wright (1888)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccineaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Watters et al. (2009)

Unio cuneus Call, 1895
Call, 1895, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7: 14.
(reference to Unio cuneus Conrad, 1838)

Unio cuneusCall (1895)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccineaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)

Quadrula kirtlandiana Simpson, 1900
‘Conrad’ Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 791. [in part]
‘Conrad’ Simpson, 1914, Descr. Cat. Naiades: 891. [in part]
(misidentified reference to Unio kirtlandianus Lea, 1834)

Quadrula kirtlandianaSimpson (1900)
Pleurobema coccineumF.C. Baker (1928)

Quadrula pyramidata Simpson, 1900
‘Lea’ Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 789. [in part]
Chadwick, 1906, unknown publication: 97.
‘Lea’ Simpson, 1914, Descr. Cat. Naiades: 889. [in part]
(misidentified reference to Unio pyramidatus Lea, 1831)

Quadrula pyramidataSimpson (1900)
Pleurobema coccineum solidaF.C. Baker (1928)

Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccinea var. paupercula Simpson, 1900
Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 789.
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Unio coccineus Conrad, 1836; homonym of Unio pauperculus Lea, 1861; renamed Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccinea var. magnalacustris Simpson, 1914)

Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccinea var. pauperculaSimpson (1900)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccinea var. magnalacustrisSimpson (1914)
Pleurobema coccineum pauperculaOrtmann & Walker (1922)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea-magnalacustrisFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea magnalacustrisHaas (1969)
Pleurobema cordatumR.I. Johnson (1980), Strayer & Jirka (1997)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009), IUCN (2012)

Pleurobema missourense Utterback, 1915
‘Marsh’ Utterback, 1915, Amer. Midl. Nat. 4(5): 195.
(error for Pleurobema missouriensis Marsh, 1901)

Pleurobema missourenseUtterback (1915)

Pleurobema coccineum var. mississippiensis F.C. Baker, 1928
F.C. Baker, 1928, Bull. Wisconsin Geol. Nat. Hist. Survey 70(2): 121, pl. 53, figs. 1-5.
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Unio coccineus Conrad, 1836)
Type(s): HOLOTYPE (ORIG. DESIG.) INHS_82273, Lake Pepin, Wisconsin.

Pleurobema coccineum var. mississippiensisF.C. Baker (1928)
Pleurobema coccineum mississippiensisF.C. Baker (1928)
Pleurobema cordatumR.I. Johnson (1980)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)

Page updated: 14:30:11 Fri 02 Oct 2020

 
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