MUSSELp
 
MUSSELpdb
 
 
Taxonomy
 
 
Geography
 
 
 

Page last updated
Wed 01 Dec 2021

The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves)

FM(U)otW(aolcb) is the web version of the MUSSEL Project Database. Follow the links to browse the data or use the custom Google search field. Either way, you win!

The nominal species (available and otherwise) in this synonymy are listed by usage rather than strictly by publication date. The primary sorting order is by the most recent year (since 1969) that the species name was treated as valid, and then nominal species are sorted secondarily by publication year.

The taxonomic history of the valid species (since 1900) is listed at the bottom of the page.

Search the database pages:

Unionoida | Unionoidea | Unionidae | Ambleminae | Pleurobemini | Pleurobema

species Pleurobema sintoxia (Rafinesque, 1820): nominal species
     8 specimens available.

Obliquaria (Sintoxia) sintoxia Rafinesque, 1820
Rafinesque, 1819, Jour. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 427 [as ‘U. (Obovaria) syntoxis’]. [nomen nudum]
Rafinesque, 1820, Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. 5 (13): 310 [also as ‘U. sintoxia’].
Rafinesque, 1864, [in] Binney & Tryon, reprint: 29, 54.
(correct name for Unio (Obovaria) syntoxis Rafinesque, 1819)
Type(s): LECTOTYPE ANSP_20208, Ohio River.

Obliquaria (Sintoxia) sintoxiaRafinesque (1820)
Unio sintoxiaFerussac (1835), Conrad (1853)
Quadrula sintoxiaVanatta (1915)
Fusconaia subrotundaOrtmann & Walker (1922)
Quadrula (Fusconia) subrotundaFrierson (1927)
Pleurobema sintoxiaMorrison (1969), Oesch (1984), Parmalee & Bogan (1998), Turgeon et al. (1998), ..., Inoue et al. (2019), Klymus et al. (2020), Bolotov et al. (2020), Graf & Cummings (2021)
Obliquaria sintoxiaBurch (1975)
Pleurobema cordatumR.I. Johnson (1980), Strayer & Jirka (1997)
Pleurobema (Sintoxia) sintoxiaCampbell & Lydeard (2012), Campbell & Lydeard (2012), Burlakova et al. (2012)

Unio coccineus Conrad, 1836
‘Hildreth’ Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(3): 29, pl. 13, fig. 1.
‘Hildreth’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 247.
Type(s): FIGURED SYNTYPE USNM_85848, Columbus, Ohio.

Unio coccineusConrad (1836), Hanley (1843), Küster (1852), Conrad (1853)
Margarita (Unio) coccineusLea (1836), Lea (1838)
Margaron (Unio) coccineusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccineaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula coccineaOrtmann (1909), Ortmann (1909)
Pleurobema obliqua var. coccineaOrtmann (1910)
Pleurobema coccineumOrtmann (1912), Utterback (1915), F.C. Baker (1928), Turgeon et al. (1988), Cummings & Mayer (1992), Williams et al. (1993), Graf & Ó Foighil (2000), Graf (2002), ITIS (2012)
Pleurobema obliquum coccineumUtterback (1915)
Pleurobema obliqua coccineumOrtmann (1918)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccineaFrierson (1927)
Pleurobema cordatum coccineumMurray & Leonard (1962), Gordon et al. (1979)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea coccineaHaas (1969)
Pleurobema cordatumMathiak (1979), R.I. Johnson (1980), Strayer & Jirka (1997)
Pleurobema cordatum f. coccineumMackie et al. (1980)
Pleurobema sintoxiaOesch (1984), Turgeon et al. (1998), Parmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009), IUCN (2012)

Unio coccineus Lea, 1838
“Dr. Hildreth’s Letter” Lea, 1836, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 34. [nomen nudum]
Lea, 1838, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 6 [O. 2]: 12, pl. 5, fig. 12.
(homonym of Unio coccineus Conrad, 1836)
Type(s): FIGURED SYNTYPE USNM_85848, Columbus, Ohio.

Unio coccineusLea (1838), Hanley (1843), Conrad (1853), Reeve (1865), Sowerby (1868), B.H. Wright (1888), de Gregorio (1914)
Margarita (Unio) coccineusLea (1836), Lea (1838)
Margaron (Unio) coccineusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Obovaria) coccineusMörch (1853), Adams & Adams (1857)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccineaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (s.s.) coccineusCall (1900)
Quadrula (Obliquata) catillaFrierson (1927)
Pleurobema coccineumF.C. Baker (1928), Graf & Cummings (2006), Hoeh et al. (2009)
Pleurobema cordatumR.I. Johnson (1980)

Unio catillus Conrad, 1836
Conrad, 1836, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 1(3): 30, pl. 13, fig. 2.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 246.

Unio catillusConrad (1836), Küster (1852), Conrad (1853)
Margarita (Unio) coccineusLea (1836), Lea (1838)
Unio coccineusHanley (1843), Reeve (1865), Sowerby (1868)
Margaron (Unio) coccineusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Obovaria) coccineusMörch (1853)
Unio catilusB.H. Wright (1888)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccineaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Pleurobema obliquum catillusUtterback (1915)
Pleurobema catillusUtterback (1915), Ortmann & Walker (1922)
Pleurobema obliqua catillusOrtmann (1918)
Pleurobema cordatum catillusOrtmann (1924), Ortmann (1925), Murray & Leonard (1962), Gordon et al. (1979)
Quadrula (Obliquata) catillaFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Pleurobema coccineum catillusF.C. Baker (1928)
Pleurobema cordatumBurch (1975), R.I. Johnson (1980)
Pleurobema sintoxiaOesch (1984), Parmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)

Obliquaria (Scalenaria) triangularis Rafinesque, 1820
Rafinesque, 1820, Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. 5 (13): 309 [also as ‘U. triangularis’].
Rafinesque, 1864, [in] Binney & Tryon, reprint: 53.

Obliquaria (Scalenaria) triangularisRafinesque (1820)
Unio triangularisFerussac (1835)
Fusconaia subrotundaOrtmann & Walker (1922)
Quadrula (Obliquata) catillaFrierson (1927)
Obliquaria triangularisBurch (1975)

Unio (Obovaria) syntoxis Rafinesque, 1819
Rafinesque, 1819, Jour. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. 88: 427. [nomen nudum]
Rafinesque, 1864, [in] Binney & Tryon, reprint: 29.
(incorrect original spelling of Obliquaria (Sintoxia) sintoxia Rafinesque, 1820)

Unio (Obovaria) syntoxisRafinesque (1819)
Fusconaia subrotundaHaas (1969)

Unio cuneus Conrad, 1838
Conrad, 1838, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(11): back cover.
Conrad, 1840, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(12): 105, pl. 58, fig. 1.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE (MONOTYPY) ANSP_41645, Arkansas River.

Unio cuneusConrad (1838), Conrad (1840), B.H. Wright (1888), Call (1895)
Margaron (Unio) coccineusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) cuneusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea-cuneaFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea cuneaHaas (1969)
Pleurobema cordatumR.I. Johnson (1980)
Pleurobema pyramidatumVidrine (1993)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)

Pleurobema missouriensis Marsh, 1901
Marsh, 1901, Nautilus 15(7): 74.
Walker, 1915, Nautilus 28(12): 140, pl. 5, figs. 1-2.
Type(s): FIGURED SYNTYPE UMMZ_113527, Black River, Poplar Bluff, Butler Co., Missouri.

Pleurobema missouriensisMarsh (1901)
Pleurobema (s.s.) missourienseSimpson (1914)
Pleurobema missourenseUtterback (1915)
Quadrula (Obliquata) missouriensisFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Fusconaia subrotundaR.I. Johnson (1980)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)

Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccinea var. magnalacustris Simpson, 1914
Simpson, 1914, Descr. Cat. Naiades: 884.
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Unio coccineus Conrad, 1836; new name for Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccinea var. paupercula Simpson, 1900)
Type(s): LECTOTYPE USNM_133834, Niagara Riv., 3 mi above Falls.

Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccinea var. magnalacustrisSimpson (1914)
Pleurobema coccineum pauperculaOrtmann & Walker (1922)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea-magnalacustrisFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea magnalacustrisHaas (1969)
Pleurobema cordatumR.I. Johnson (1980)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)

Obliquaria (Scalenaria) triangularis var. nigrescens Rafinesque, 1820
Rafinesque, 1820, Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. 5 (13): 309.
Rafinesque, 1864, [in] Binney & Tryon, reprint: 53.
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Obliquaria (Scalenaria) triangularis Rafinesque, 1820)

Obliquaria (Scalenaria) triangularis var. nigrescensRafinesque (1820)

Unio solidus Lea, 1838
Lea, 1836, Synopsis Fam. Naiades: 20. [nomen nudum]
Lea, 1838, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 6 [O. 2]: 13, pl. 5, fig. 13.

Unio solidusLea (1838), Hanley (1843), Küster (1862), Reeve (1865), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margarita (Unio) solidusLea (1836), Lea (1838)
Margaron (Unio) solidusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio obovalisConrad (1853)
Unio (Lampsilis) solidusAdams & Adams (1857)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) solidaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (s.s.) solidusCall (1900)
Pleurobema obliquum catillusUtterback (1915)
Pleurobema catillusUtterback (1915), Ortmann & Walker (1922)
Pleurobema obliqua catillusOrtmann (1918)
Pleurobema cordatum catillusOrtmann (1925), Murray & Leonard (1962)
Quadrula (Obliquata) catillaFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Pleurobema coccineum solidaF.C. Baker (1928)
Pleurobema sintoxiaMorrison (1969), Oesch (1984), Parmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)
Pleurobema cordatumBurch (1975), R.I. Johnson (1980), Strayer & Jirka (1997)

Unio cardiacea Deshayes, 1839
‘Guérin’ Deshayes, 1839, Traité Élém. Conchyl.: 19, pl. 31, figs. 1-2.
(misidentified reference to Unio cardiacea Guérin-Méneville, 1823)

Unio cardiaceaDeshayes (1839)
Margaron (Unio) pyramidatusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) solidaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula (Obliquata) catillaHaas (1969)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Watters et al. (2009)

Unio gouldianus Jay, 1839
Ward in Jay, 1839, Cat. Rec. Shells: 24. [nomen nudum]

Unio gouldianusJay (1839)
Margaron (Unio) ebenusLea (1852)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccineaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (s.s.) coccineusCall (1900)
Quadrula (Fusconia) antrosaFrierson (1927)
Fusconaia antrosaHaas (1969)
Pleurobema cordatumR.I. Johnson (1980)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)

Unio fulgidus Lea, 1845
Lea, 1845, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 4: 164.
Lea, 1848, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 10 [O. 4]: 73 [47], pl. 4, fig. 10.
Type(s): FIGURED SYNTYPE USNM_84649, Alexandria, La.

Unio fulgidusLea (1845), Conrad (1853), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margaron (Unio) fulgidusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Lampsilis) fulgidusAdams & Adams (1857)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) solidaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Pleurobema catillusUtterback (1915)
Quadrula (Obliquata) catillaFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Pleurobema cordatumR.I. Johnson (1980)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)

Unio obovalis Conrad, 1853
‘Rafinesque’ Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 253.
(misidentified reference to Obovaria obovalis Rafinesque, 1820)

Unio obovalisConrad (1853)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) solidaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Watters et al. (2009)

Unio mytiloides Lapham, 1860
‘Raf.’ Lapham, 1860, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 12: 156.
(misidentified reference to Pleurobema mytiloides Rafinesque, 1820)

Unio mytiloidesLapham (1860)
Pleurobema coccineum catillusF.C. Baker (1928)

Unio obliquus Lapham, 1860
‘Lamarck’ of Authors.
Lapham, 1860, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 12: 156.
Baker, 1905, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 15: 256.
Ortmann, 1919, Mem. Carnegie Mus. 8(1): 73. [in part]
(misidentified reference to Unio obliqua Lamarck, 1819)

Unio obliquusLapham (1860)
Pleurobema coccineum solidaF.C. Baker (1928)

Unio pyramidatus Call, 1885
Call, 1885, unknown publication: 46.
(misidentified reference to Unio pyramidatus Lea, 1831)

Unio pyramidatusCall (1885)
Pleurobema coccineum catillusF.C. Baker (1928)

Unio catilus B.H. Wright, 1888
‘Conrad’ of Authors.
B.H. Wright, 1888, Check List N. Amer. Unionidae etc.: [2].
Ortmann, 1924, Amer. Midl. Nat. 9(1): 38.
(error for Unio catillus Conrad, 1836)

Unio catilusB.H. Wright (1888)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccineaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Watters et al. (2009)

Unio cuneus Call, 1895
Call, 1895, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7: 14.
(reference to Unio cuneus Conrad, 1838)

Unio cuneusCall (1895)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccineaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)

Quadrula kirtlandiana Simpson, 1900
‘Conrad’ Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 791. [in part]
‘Conrad’ Simpson, 1914, Descr. Cat. Naiades: 891. [in part]
(misidentified reference to Unio kirtlandianus Lea, 1834)

Quadrula kirtlandianaSimpson (1900)
Pleurobema coccineumF.C. Baker (1928)

Quadrula pyramidata Simpson, 1900
‘Lea’ Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 789. [in part]
Chadwick, 1906, unknown publication: 97.
‘Lea’ Simpson, 1914, Descr. Cat. Naiades: 889. [in part]
(misidentified reference to Unio pyramidatus Lea, 1831)

Quadrula pyramidataSimpson (1900)
Pleurobema coccineum solidaF.C. Baker (1928)

Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccinea var. paupercula Simpson, 1900
Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 789.
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Unio coccineus Conrad, 1836; homonym of Unio pauperculus Lea, 1861; renamed Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccinea var. magnalacustris Simpson, 1914)

Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccinea var. pauperculaSimpson (1900)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccinea var. magnalacustrisSimpson (1914)
Pleurobema coccineum pauperculaOrtmann & Walker (1922)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea-magnalacustrisFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea magnalacustrisHaas (1969)
Pleurobema cordatumR.I. Johnson (1980), Strayer & Jirka (1997)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009), IUCN (2012)

Pleurobema missourense Utterback, 1915
‘Marsh’ Utterback, 1915, Amer. Midl. Nat. 4(5): 195.
(error for Pleurobema missouriensis Marsh, 1901)

Pleurobema missourenseUtterback (1915)

Pleurobema coccineum var. mississippiensis F.C. Baker, 1928
F.C. Baker, 1928, Bull. Wisconsin Geol. Nat. Hist. Survey 70(2): 121, pl. 53, figs. 1-5.
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Unio coccineus Conrad, 1836)
Type(s): HOLOTYPE (ORIG. DESIG.) INHS_82273, Lake Pepin, Wisconsin.

Pleurobema coccineum var. mississippiensisF.C. Baker (1928)
Pleurobema coccineum mississippiensisF.C. Baker (1928)
Pleurobema cordatumR.I. Johnson (1980)
Pleurobema sintoxiaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009)

Taxonomic History (since 1900)

Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccineaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (s.s.) coccineusCall (1900)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) cuneusSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) solidaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (s.s.) solidusCall (1900)
Quadrula kirtlandianaSimpson (1900)
Quadrula pyramidataSimpson (1900)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccinea var. pauperculaSimpson (1900)
Pleurobema missouriensisMarsh (1901)
Quadrula coccineaOrtmann (1909), Ortmann (1909)
Pleurobema obliqua var. coccineaOrtmann (1910)
Pleurobema coccineumOrtmann (1912), Utterback (1915), F.C. Baker (1928), Turgeon et al. (1988), ..., Graf (2002), Graf & Cummings (2006), Hoeh et al. (2009), ITIS (2012)
Unio coccineusde Gregorio (1914)
Quadrula (sec. Fusconaia) coccinea var. magnalacustrisSimpson (1914)
Pleurobema (s.s.) missourienseSimpson (1914)
Quadrula sintoxiaVanatta (1915)
Pleurobema obliquum catillusUtterback (1915)
Pleurobema catillusUtterback (1915), Ortmann & Walker (1922)
Pleurobema obliquum coccineumUtterback (1915)
Pleurobema missourenseUtterback (1915)
Pleurobema obliqua catillusOrtmann (1918)
Pleurobema obliqua coccineumOrtmann (1918)
Fusconaia subrotundaOrtmann & Walker (1922), Haas (1969), R.I. Johnson (1980)
Pleurobema coccineum pauperculaOrtmann & Walker (1922)
Pleurobema cordatum catillusOrtmann (1924), Ortmann (1925), Murray & Leonard (1962), Gordon et al. (1979)
Quadrula (Obliquata) catillaFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Quadrula (Fusconia) subrotundaFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccineaFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea-cuneaFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (Fusconia) antrosaFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea-magnalacustrisFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (Obliquata) missouriensisFrierson (1927), Haas (1969)
Pleurobema coccineum catillusF.C. Baker (1928)
Pleurobema coccineum solidaF.C. Baker (1928)
Pleurobema coccineum var. mississippiensisF.C. Baker (1928)
Pleurobema coccineum mississippiensisF.C. Baker (1928)
Pleurobema cordatum coccineumMurray & Leonard (1962), Gordon et al. (1979)
Pleurobema sintoxiaMorrison (1969), Oesch (1984), Parmalee & Bogan (1998), Turgeon et al. (1998), ..., Inoue et al. (2019), Klymus et al. (2020), Bolotov et al. (2020), Graf & Cummings (2021)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea coccineaHaas (1969)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea cuneaHaas (1969)
Fusconaia antrosaHaas (1969)
Quadrula (Obliquata) coccinea magnalacustrisHaas (1969)
Obliquaria triangularisBurch (1975)
Obliquaria sintoxiaBurch (1975)
Pleurobema cordatumBurch (1975), Mathiak (1979), R.I. Johnson (1980), Strayer & Jirka (1997)
Pleurobema cordatum f. coccineumMackie et al. (1980)
Pleurobema pyramidatumVidrine (1993)
Pleurobema (Sintoxia) sintoxiaCampbell & Lydeard (2012), Campbell & Lydeard (2012), Burlakova et al. (2012)

Page updated: 16:44:30 Wed 01 Dec 2021

 
NSF icon MUSSEL icon
"Making the world a better place, one mollusk at a time."