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Page last updated
Wed 01 Dec 2021

The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves)

FM(U)otW(aolcb) is the web version of the MUSSEL Project Database. Follow the links to browse the data or use the custom Google search field. Either way, you win!

The nominal species (available and otherwise) in this synonymy are listed by usage rather than strictly by publication date. The primary sorting order is by the most recent year (since 1969) that the species name was treated as valid, and then nominal species are sorted secondarily by publication year.

The taxonomic history of the valid species (since 1900) is listed at the bottom of the page.

Search the database pages:

Unionoida | Unionoidea | Unionidae | Ambleminae | Quadrulini | Quadrula

species Quadrula quadrula (Rafinesque, 1820): nominal species
     13 specimens available.

Obliquaria (Quadrula) quadrula Rafinesque, 1820
Rafinesque, 1820, Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. 5 (13): 307 [also as ‘Unio quadrula’].
Rafinesque, 1864, [in] Binney & Tryon, reprint: 51.
Type(s): NEOTYPE ANSP_20224, Salt River.

Obliquaria (Quadrula) quadrulaRafinesque (1820)
Unio quadrulusFerussac (1835), Conrad (1840), Küster (1861)
Unio (Theliderma) quadrulusConrad (1853)
Unio quadratusReeve (1864)
Unio (sec. Quadrula) quadrulusPaetel (1890)
Quadrula quadrulaUtterback (1915), Vanatta (1915), Ortmann & Walker (1922), Ortmann (1924), ..., Teiga-Teixeira et al. (2020), Lopes-Lima et al. (2020), Bolotov et al. (2020), Graf & Cummings (2021)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrulaFrierson (1927), F.C. Baker (1928), Haas (1969)
Quadrula (s.s.) giganteaHaas (1930)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula quadrulaHaas (1969)
Obliquaria quadrulaBurch (1975)
Quadrula quedrulaContreras-Arquieta (2000)
Quadrula quadrula quadrulaITIS (2012)
Q. quadrulaSheng et al. (2014)

Unio apiculatus Say, 1829
Say, 1829, New Harm. Dissem. 2(20): 309, sp. 8.
Say, 1834, Amer. Conch. 6: pl. 52.
Say, 1858, [in] Binney, Compl. Writings T. Say: 131, 207, 225.

Unio apiculatusSay (1829), Ferussac (1835), Conrad (1837), Hanley (1843), Reeve (1864), B.H. Wright (1888), Singley (1893)
Margarita (Unio) apiculatusLea (1836), Lea (1838)
Margaron (Unio) apiculatusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Theliderma) apiculatusConrad (1853)
Unio (Quadrula) apiculatusAdams & Adams (1857)
Unio (sec. Quadrula) apiculatusPaetel (1890)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) apiculataSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula apiculataOrtmann (1910), R.I. Johnson (1980), Davis & Fuller (1981), Turgeon et al. (1988), ..., Pfeiffer et al. (2018), Pfeiffer et al. (2019), Pfeiffer et al. (2019), Inoue et al. (2019)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula-apiculataFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula apiculataHaas (1969)
Quadrula quadrulaBurch (1975), Lopes-Lima et al. (2019), Graf & Cummings (2021)

Unio rumphianus Lea, 1852
Lea, 1852, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 10 [O. 5]: 276 [32], pl. 22, fig. 34.
Lea, 1852, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 5: 252. [nomen nudum]
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_84189, West Georgia.

Unio rumphianusLea (1852), Conrad (1853), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margaron (Unio) rumphianusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Quadrula) rumphianusAdams & Adams (1857)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) rumphianaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula-rumphianaFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula rumphianaHaas (1969)
Quadrula quadrulaBurch (1975), Lopes-Lima et al. (2019), Graf & Cummings (2021)
Quadrula rumphianaTurgeon et al. (1988), Williams et al. (1993), Turgeon et al. (1998), Lydeard et al. (1999), ..., Szumowski et al. (2012), Williams et al. (2017), Inoue et al. (2018), Burlakova et al. (2019)

Unio asper Lea, 1831
Lea, 1831, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 4 [O. 1]: 85 [95], pl. 9, fig. 15.
Type(s): UNKNOWN USNM_84212, Claiborne, Ala. R., Alabama.

Unio asperLea (1831), Jay (1835), Hanley (1843), Conrad (1853), Reeve (1864), B.H. Wright (1888), Singley (1893)
Unio apiculatusFerussac (1835), Conrad (1837)
Margarita (Unio) asperLea (1836), Lea (1838)
Margaron (Unio) asperLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Quadrula) asperMörch (1853), Adams & Adams (1857)
Unio (sec. Quadrula) apiculatus vr. asperPaetel (1890)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) asperSimpson (1900)
Quadrula asperaOrtmann (1912), Utterback (1915)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) asperaSimpson (1914)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula-asperaFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula asperaHaas (1969)
Quadrula quadrulaBurch (1975), R.I. Johnson (1980), Vidrine (1993), Lopes-Lima et al. (2019)
Quadrula apiculataWilliams et al. (2008)

Unio forsheyi Lea, 1859
Lea, 1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 11: 155.
Lea, 1860, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 4 [O. 8]: 357 [39], pl. 60, fig. 182.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_84169, Texas.

Unio forsheyiLea (1859), Reeve (1864), B.H. Wright (1888), Singley (1893)
Margaron (Unio) forsheyiLea (1870)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) forsheyiSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula forsheyiOrtmann (1910)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula-forsheyiFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula forsheyiHaas (1969)
Quadrula quadrulaBurch (1975), Howells et al. (1996), Lopes-Lima et al. (2019)
Quadrula apiculataWilliams et al. (2008)

Unio speciosus Lea, 1862
Lea, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 14: 168.
Lea, 1862, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 5 [O. 9]: 207 [29], pl. 31, fig. 276.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_84172, Leon Co., Texas.

Unio speciosusLea (1862), Sowerby (1868), B.H. Wright (1888), Singley (1893), Call (1895)
Margaron (Unio) speciosusLea (1870)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) speciosaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula speciosaOrtmann (1910)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula-speciosaFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula speciosaHaas (1969)
Quadrula quadrulaBurch (1975)
Quadrula apiculataR.I. Johnson (1999)

Unio rugosus Barnes, 1823
Barnes, 1823, Amer. J. Sci. 6 (1-2): 126, pl. 8, fig. 9a-b.
(homonym of Unio rugosa Poiret, 1801)

Unio rugosusBarnes (1823), Hildreth (1828)
Unio quadrulusFerussac (1835), Conrad (1840)
Margarita (Unio) metaneverLea (1836), Lea (1838)
Unio (Theliderma) rugosusSwainson (1840)
Quadrula rugosusAgassiz (1852)
Margaron (Unio) metanevrusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio metaneurusConrad (1853)
Unio metaneverReeve (1864)
Unio metanevrusCall (1895)
Quadrula quadrulaOrtmann & Walker (1922), Burch (1975), R.I. Johnson (1980), Parmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Lopes-Lima et al. (2019)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrulaFrierson (1927), F.C. Baker (1928)
Quadrula (s.s.) giganteaHaas (1930)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula quadrulaHaas (1969)
Quadrula fragosaWatters et al. (2009)

Unio dombeyanus Barnes, 1828
Barnes, 1828, Amer. J. Sci. 13(2): 360.
(misidentified reference to Unio dombeyana Humboldt & Bonpland, 1827)

Unio dombeyanusBarnes (1828)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrulaFrierson (1927)

Unio lacrymosus Lea, 1828
Lea, 1828, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 3 [O. 1]: 272 [14], pl. 6, fig. 8.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_84165, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Unio lacrymosusLea (1828), Lea (1829), Ravenel (1834), Ferussac (1835), Küster (1853), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margarita (Unio) lacrymosusLea (1836), Lea (1838)
Unio quadrulusConrad (1840), Conrad (1853)
Unio (Theliderma) lachrymosaSwainson (1840)
Unio lachrymosusHanley (1843), Reeve (1864), Call (1895)
Margaron (Unio) lacrymosusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Quadrula) lachrymosusAdams & Adams (1857)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) lachrymosaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (s.s.) lachrymosusCall (1900)
Quadrula lachrymosusOrtmann (1909)
Quadrula lachrymosaOrtmann (1909), Ortmann (1910), Ortmann (1910), Ortmann (1912)
Quadrula quadrulaUtterback (1915), Vanatta (1915), Ortmann & Walker (1922), Burch (1975), ..., Parmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009), Lopes-Lima et al. (2019)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrulaFrierson (1927), F.C. Baker (1928)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula quadrulaHaas (1969)

Unio asperrimus Lea, 1831
Lea, 1831, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 4 [O. 1]: 71 [81], pl. 5, fig. 3.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_84174, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Unio asperrimusLea (1831), Jay (1835), Hanley (1843), B.H. Wright (1888), Singley (1893), Pilsbry & Rhoads (1896), de Gregorio (1914)
Unio asperimusRavenel (1834)
Unio quadrulusFerussac (1835), Conrad (1840), Conrad (1853), Küster (1861)
Margarita (Unio) asperrimusLea (1836), Lea (1838)
Margaron (Unio) asperrimusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio (Quadrula) asperrimusAdams & Adams (1857)
Unio quadratusReeve (1864)
Unio (sec. Quadrula) quadrulusPaetel (1890)
Unio lachrymosusCall (1895)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) lachrymosaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (s.s.) lachrymosusCall (1900)
Quadrula quadrulaUtterback (1915), Ortmann & Walker (1922), Burch (1975), R.I. Johnson (1980), ..., Parmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009), Lopes-Lima et al. (2019)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrulaFrierson (1927), F.C. Baker (1928)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula quadrulaHaas (1969)

Unio asperimus Ravenel, 1834
‘Lea’ Ravenel, 1834, Cat. Rec. Shells: 5.
(error for Unio asperrimus Lea, 1831)

Unio asperimusRavenel (1834)

Unio quadrulus Say, 1834
‘Rafinesque’ of Authors.
Say, 1834, Amer. Conch. 6: pl. 53.
Conrad, 1840, Monogr. Fam. Unionidae 2(13): 112, pl. 62.
(reference to Obliquaria (Quadrula) quadrula Rafinesque, 1820)

Unio quadrulusSay (1834), Conrad (1840), Conrad (1853), Küster (1861)
Unio lacrymosusRavenel (1834), Ferussac (1835)
Margarita (Unio) asperrimusLea (1838)
Margaron (Unio) asperrimusLea (1852), Lea (1870)
Unio quadratusReeve (1864)
Unio lachrymosusCall (1895)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) lachrymosaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula quadrulaUtterback (1915), Watters et al. (2009)

Unio asper Jay, 1839
‘Lea’ Jay, 1839, Cat. Rec. Shells: 55.
(reference to Unio asper Lea, 1831)

Unio asperJay (1839)
Unio apiculatusConrad (1853)

Quadrula lachrymosa Swainson, 1840
‘Lea’ of Authors.
Swainson, 1840, Treat. Malacol.: 378.
Hanley, 1843, Illustr. Descr. Cat. Rec. Bivalve Shells: 177.
Conrad, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 6: 256.
Adams & Adams, 1857, Gen. Rec. Moll. 2(31-32): 497.
Reeve, 1864, Conch. Icon. 16: pl. 9, sp. 33.
Call, 1895, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7: 21.
F.C. Baker, 1898, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci. 3(1): 83, pl. 25, fig. 1; pl. 12, fig. 2.
Simpson, 1900, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 22: 776.
Call, 1900, Ind. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. (1899): 489.
Ortmann, 1909, Nautilus 22(10): 100.
Ortmann, 1909, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 5: 199.
Ortmann, 1910, Nautilus 23(11): 140.
Ortmann, 1910, Nautilus 23: 116.
Ortmann, 1912, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 8: 253.
Simpson, 1914, Descr. Cat. Naiades: 839, 841.
Vanatta, 1915, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 67: 556.
Ortmann & Walker, 1922, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. (112): 14, 16.
Frierson, 1927, Check List N. Amer. Naiades: 47.
F.C. Baker, 1928, Bull. Wisconsin Geol. Nat. Hist. Survey 70(2): 84.
R.I. Johnson, 1980, Bull. MCZ 149(2): 90.
Vidrine, 1993, Histr. Distr. Freshw. Mussels LA: 53.
Strayer & Jirka, 1997, Pearly Mussels NY (26): 98.
(error for Unio lacrymosus Lea, 1828)

Quadrula lachrymosaSwainson (1840)
Quadrula quadrulaUtterback (1915), Murray & Leonard (1962), Oesch (1984), Vidrine (1993), Parmalee & Bogan (1998), Watters et al. (2009)

Unio nobilis Conrad, 1854
Conrad, 1854, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 2(4): 297, pl. 27, figs. 2. [in part]
(misidentified reference to Unio nobilis Conrad, 1854)
Type(s): NOMEN NUDUM ANSP_43019, Louisiana.

Unio nobilisConrad (1854)
Unio (Theliderma) nobilisConrad (1853)
Margaron (Unio) asperrimusLea (1870)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) apiculataSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula nobilisUtterback (1915)
Quadrula quadrulaBurch (1975), R.I. Johnson (1980), Howells et al. (1996)
Quadrula apiculataVidrine (1993), Parmalee & Bogan (1998)

Unio blandianus Lea, 1857
Lea, 1857, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 8: 263.
Lea, 1857, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 9: 31.
Lea, 1858, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 4 [O. 6]: 65, pl. 11, fig. 47.
Type(s): HOLOTYPE USNM_84190, Othcaloosa Cr., Ga.

Unio blandianusLea (1857), Sowerby (1868), B.H. Wright (1888)
Margaron (Unio) blandianusLea (1870)
Unio (sec. Rotundaria) blandianusPaetel (1890)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) rumphianaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula-rumphianaFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula rumphianaHaas (1969)
Quadrula quadrulaBurch (1975), Lopes-Lima et al. (2019)
Quadrula rumphianaWilliams et al. (2008)

Unio quadratus Reeve, 1864
‘Rafinesque’ Reeve, 1864, Conch. Icon. 16: pl. 6, sp. 24.
(error for Obliquaria (Quadrula) quadrula Rafinesque, 1820)

Unio quadratusReeve (1864)
Margaron (Unio) lacrymosusLea (1870)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) lachrymosaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrulaFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula quadrulaHaas (1969)
Quadrula quadrulaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Watters et al. (2009)

Unio turgidus Reeve, 1864
‘Lea’ Reeve, 1864, Conch. Icon. 16: pl. 3, sp. 10.
(misidentified reference to Unio turgidus Lea, 1838)

Unio turgidusReeve (1864)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) asperSimpson (1900)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) asperaSimpson (1914)

Unio lunulatus Pratt, 1876
Pratt, 1876, Proc. Davenport Acad. Nat. Sci. 1: 168, pl. 31, fig. 1a-b [as ‘unul atus’; corrected in Errata].
(correct name for Unio unul atus Pratt, 1876)

Unio lunulatusPratt (1876)
Unio lachrymosusCall (1895)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) lachrymosa var. lunulataSimpson (1900)
Tritogonia nobilisSimpson (1914)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrulaFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula quadrulaHaas (1969)
Quadrula quadrulaParmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009), Lopes-Lima et al. (2019)

Unio unul atus Pratt, 1876
Pratt, 1876, Proc. Davenport Acad. Nat. Sci. 1: 168.
(incorrect original spelling of Unio lunulatus Pratt, 1876)

Unio unul atusPratt (1876)
Quadrula quadrulaLopes-Lima et al. (2019)

Quadrula quadrula contraryensis Utterback, 1915
Utterback, 1915, Amer. Midl. Nat. 4(4): 138, pl. 18, figs. 47a-b.
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Obliquaria (Quadrula) quadrula Rafinesque, 1820)
Type(s): NEOTYPE CM_61.6892, Lake Contrary, St. Joseph, Buchanan Co., Missouri.

Quadrula quadrula contraryensisUtterback (1915)
Quadrula quadrulaBurch (1975), R.I. Johnson (1980), Parmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009), Lopes-Lima et al. (2019)

Quadrula (Quadrula) quadrula bullocki F.C. Baker, 1928
F.C. Baker, 1928, Bull. Wisconsin Geol. Nat. Hist. Survey 70(2): 87, pl. 46, figs. 1-3.
(intro'd as intra-sp. of Obliquaria (Quadrula) quadrula Rafinesque, 1820)
Type(s): HOLOTYPE (ORIG. DESIG.) UMMZ_209203, Fox River, nr. De Pere, Wisc.

Quadrula (Quadrula) quadrula bullockiF.C. Baker (1928)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula bullockiF.C. Baker (1928)
Quadrula quadrulaClarke (1973), Burch (1975), R.I. Johnson (1980), Parmalee & Bogan (1998), Williams et al. (2008), Watters et al. (2009), Lopes-Lima et al. (2019)

Quadrula (s.s.) gigantea Haas, 1930
‘Raf.’ Haas, 1930, Senckenbergiana 12(6): 327.
(error for Obliquaria (Quadrula) quadrula Rafinesque, 1820)

Quadrula (s.s.) giganteaHaas (1930)

Quadrula contrayensis R.I. Johnson, 1969
‘Utterback’ R.I. Johnson, 1969, Nautilus 82(4): 132.
(error for Quadrula quadrula contraryensis Utterback, 1915)

Quadrula contrayensisR.I. Johnson (1969)
Quadrula quadrulaParmalee & Bogan (1998)

Quadrula quedrula Contreras-Arquieta, 2000
‘Rafinesque’ Contreras-Arquieta, 2000, Mexicoa 2(1): 44.
(error for Obliquaria (Quadrula) quadrula Rafinesque, 1820)

Quadrula quedrulaContreras-Arquieta (2000)

Taxonomic History (since 1900)

Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) lachrymosaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Unio (s.s.) lachrymosusCall (1900)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) apiculataSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) asperSimpson (1900)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) rumphianaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) forsheyiSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) speciosaSimpson (1900), Simpson (1914)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) lachrymosa var. lunulataSimpson (1900)
Quadrula lachrymosusOrtmann (1909)
Quadrula lachrymosaOrtmann (1909), Ortmann (1910), Ortmann (1910), Ortmann (1912)
Quadrula apiculataOrtmann (1910), R.I. Johnson (1980), Davis & Fuller (1981), Turgeon et al. (1988), ..., Pfeiffer et al. (2018), Pfeiffer et al. (2019), Pfeiffer et al. (2019), Inoue et al. (2019)
Quadrula forsheyiOrtmann (1910)
Quadrula speciosaOrtmann (1910)
Quadrula asperaOrtmann (1912), Utterback (1915)
Quadrula (sec. Theliderma) asperaSimpson (1914)
Unio asperrimusde Gregorio (1914)
Tritogonia nobilisSimpson (1914)
Quadrula quadrulaUtterback (1915), Vanatta (1915), Ortmann & Walker (1922), Ortmann (1924), ..., Teiga-Teixeira et al. (2020), Lopes-Lima et al. (2020), Bolotov et al. (2020), Graf & Cummings (2021)
Quadrula nobilisUtterback (1915)
Quadrula quadrula contraryensisUtterback (1915)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrulaFrierson (1927), F.C. Baker (1928), Haas (1969)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula-apiculataFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula-asperaFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula-rumphianaFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula-forsheyiFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula-speciosaFrierson (1927)
Quadrula (Quadrula) quadrula bullockiF.C. Baker (1928)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula bullockiF.C. Baker (1928)
Quadrula (s.s.) giganteaHaas (1930)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula quadrulaHaas (1969)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula apiculataHaas (1969)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula asperaHaas (1969)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula rumphianaHaas (1969)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula forsheyiHaas (1969)
Quadrula (s.s.) quadrula speciosaHaas (1969)
Quadrula contrayensisR.I. Johnson (1969)
Obliquaria quadrulaBurch (1975)
Quadrula rumphianaTurgeon et al. (1988), Williams et al. (1993), Turgeon et al. (1998), Lydeard et al. (1999), ..., Szumowski et al. (2012), Williams et al. (2017), Inoue et al. (2018), Burlakova et al. (2019)
Quadrula quedrulaContreras-Arquieta (2000)
Quadrula fragosaWatters et al. (2009)
Quadrula quadrula quadrulaITIS (2012)
Q. quadrulaSheng et al. (2014)

Page updated: 16:45:25 Wed 01 Dec 2021

 
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